Evaluation of single-kernel density of scab-damaged winter wheat
Measurements of single-kernel mass and volume made on healthy (control) and scab-damaged samples of grain of three winter wheat varieties never resulted in lower values of mean single-kernel density for scab-damaged grain. This finding, contrary to common opinion, can be explained as being a result of the comparable magnitude of relative decrease (due to infestation) of two features (mass and volume) that define single-kernel density. The discrepancy between results presented in this paper (kernel volume was determined with an air pycnometer) and the results in some other reports (liquid pycnometers used) can result from the different methods applied for kernel volume measurements: when a liquid medium is used the surface tension effect tends to overestimate the volume, especially for scabby kernels that are known to be shrivelled ie possessing voids and pores at the surface that the liquid cannot penetrate. As a consequence kernel density of scabby kernels can be significantly underestimated.
Anonymous, 1993. Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
Bechtel D. B., Kaleikau L. A., Gaines R. L., and Seitz L. M., 1985. The effects of Fusarium graminearum on wheat kernels. Cereal Chem., 62, 191-197.
Boyacioglu D. and Hettiarachchy N. S., 1995. Changes in some biochemical components of wheat grain that was infected with Fusarium graminearum. J. Cereal Sci., 21, 57-62.
Chang C. S., 1988. Measuring density and porosity of grain kernels using a gas pycnometer. Cereal Chem., 65, 13-15.
Dobraszczyk B. J., Whitworth M. B., Vincent J. F. V., and Khan A. A., 2002. Single kernel wheat hardness and fracture properties in relation to density and the modelling of fracture in wheat endosperm. J. Cereal Sci., 35, 245-263.
Dowell F. E., Maghirang E. B., Graybosch R. A., Baenziger P. S., Baltensperger D. D., and Hansen L. E., 2006. An automated NIR system for selecting individual kernels based on specfic quality characteristics. Cereal Chem., 83, 537-543.
Dziki D. and Laskowski J., 2004. Influence of kernel size on grinding process of wheat at respective grinding stages. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 13/54, 29-33.
Dziki D. and Laskowski J., 2005. Wheat kernel physical properties and milling process. Acta Agrophysica, 127, 59-71.
Fang C. and Campbell G. M., 2000. Effect of measurement method and moisture content on wheat kernel density measurement. Food Bioproducts Proces., 78, 179-186.
Huff W. E., 1980. A physical method for the segregation of aflatoxin-contaminated corn. Cereal Chem., 57, 236-238.
Huff W. E. and Hagler W. M., 1982. Evaluation of density segregation as a means to estimate the degree of aflatoxin contamination of corn. Cereal Chem., 59, 152-154.
Huff W. E. and Hagler W. M., 1985. Density segregation of corn and wheat naturally contaminated with aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. J. Food Protection, 48, 416-420.
Martin Ch., Herrman T. J., Loughin T., and Oentong S., 1998. Micropycnometer measurement of single-kernel density of healthy, sprouted, and scab-damaged wheats. Cereal Chem., 75, 177-180.
Pearson T. C., Cetin A. E., Tewfik A. H., and Haff R. P., 2007. Feasibility of impact-acoustic emissions for detection of damaged wheat kernels. Digital Signal Proc., 17, 617-633.
Seitz L. M. and Bechtel D. B., 1985. Chemical, physical and microscopical studies of scab-infected hard red winter wheat. J. Agric. Food Chem., 33, 373-377.
Siemens M. C. and Jones D. F., 2008. Segregation of soft white wheat by density for improved quality. Transactions of ASABE, 51, 1035-1047.
Siuda R. and Sadowski C., 2005. Single-kernel density analysis: preliminary results from case study on scab damaged wheat. Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Recent Advances in Food Analysis, November 2-4, Prague, Czech Republic.
Siuda R. and Rozwadowski M., 2006. Analysis of the accuracy of single-kernel density measurements made with a simple set-up. Acta Agrophysica, 133, 477-485.
Tkachuk R., Dexter J. E., Tipples K. H., and Nowicki T. W., 1991. Removal by specific gravity table of tombstone and associated trichotecenes from wheat infected with Fusarium head blight. Cereal Chem., 68, 428-431.
Tukey J. W., 1977. Exploratory Data Analysis. Addison-Wesley Press, New York, USA.
Wąsowicz E., 1991. Changes of chemical grain components, especially lipids, during their deterioration by fungi. In: Mycotoxins, Fungi and Quality in Drying and Storage Cereal Grains (Ed. J. Chełkowski). Elsevier Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.