Metabolic Syndrome and Myocardial Involvement in HIV-Infected Patients

Open access


The current HAART has modified natural history of HIV infection and it has practically turned the disease into a manageable chronic condition. Even though the benefits of HAART use are overwhelmingly greater than possible metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risks, close management of those patients is called for, especially due to the fact that general population risk factors now overlap with specific ones in this population.

Cardiovascular screening for HIV-infected patients who are receiving HAART must be done constantly with a collaboration between the infectious disease specialist and the internist.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Gorin I Leibowitch M et al. AIDS in a Haitian woman with cardiac Kaposi’s sarcoma and Whipple’s disease. Lancet 1983;i:7678. The first clinical description of cardiovascular disease complicating HIV infection.

  • 2. Calza L Manfredi R Farneti B Chiodo F. Incidence of hyperlipidaemia in a cohort of 212 HIV-infected patients receiving a protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2003.

  • 3. Giuseppe Barbaro Barbarini Giorgio Human immunodeficiency virus & cardiovascular risk. Indian J Med Res 134 December 2011 pp 898-903.

  • 4. Carr A. HIV lipodystrophy: risk factors pathogenesis diagnosis and management. AIDS. 2003;17:S141S148.

  • 5. Barbaro G. Highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic syndrome: pathogenesis and cardiovascular risk. Am J Therapeut. 2006; 13: 248-60.

  • 6. Triant VA Lee H Hadigan C Grinspoon SK. Increased acute myocardial infarction rates and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92:2506.

  • 7. Carr A Cooper D. Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Lancet. 2000; 356: 1423-30

  • 8. Rudich A Ben-Romano R Etzion S Bashan N. Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance lipodystrophy and atherosclerosis induced by HIV protease inhibitors. Acta Physiol Scand 2005; 183:75.

  • 9. Kim RJ Wilson CG Wabitsch M Lazar MA teppan CM. HIV protease inhibitor-specific alterations in human adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. Obesity 2006;14:994e1002 (SilverSpring).

  • 10. Andersen O Haugaard SB Andersen UB Friis-Moller N Storgaard H Volund A et al. Lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus patients impairs insulin action and induces defects in beta-cell function. Metabolism 2003;52:1343e53.

  • 11. Currier JS Taylor A Boyd F et al. Coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003; 33:506.

  • 12. Worm SW Sabin C Weber R et ak Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with HIV infection exposed to specific individual antiretroviral drugs from the 3 major classes: the data collection on adverse events of anti-HIV drugs (DAD) study. J Infect Dis 2010; 20 : 318-30.

  • 13. Andrew Carr; Katherine Samaras; Samantha Burton; Matthew Law; Judith Freund; Donald Chisholm; David Cooper; A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors may 1998.

  • 14. Antoine Biron Christine Bobin-Dubigeon Christelle Volteau Metabolic Syndrome in French HIV-Infected Patients: Prevalence and Predictive Factors After 3 Years of Antiretroviral Therapy 21 Nov 2012.

  • 15. Parisa Kalantari Omid F. Harandi Pamela A. Hankey HIV-1 Tat Mediates Degradation of RON Receptor Tyrosine Kinase a Regulator of Inflammation July 15 2008.

  • 16. Bastard JP Maachi M Lagathu C Recent advances in the relationship between obesity inflammation and insulin resistance 2006.

  • 17. Karine Clément Nathalie Viguerie Christine Poitou Weight loss regulates inflammation-related genes in white adipose tissue of obese subjects 1 Nov 2004.

  • 18. Harold S.Sacks John N.Fains Human epicardial adipose tissue: A review 2007.

  • 19. Ngatchou W Lemogoum D Ndobo P Increased burden and severity of metabolic syndrome and arterial stiffness in treatment naïve HIV+ patients from Cameroon 4 January 2013.

  • 20. Davide Gibellini Pier Luigi Tazzari Francesca Ricci Analysis of the effects of HIV-1 Tat on the survival and differentiation of vessel wall-derived mesenchymal stem cells 17 November 2011.

  • 21. Giralt M Domingo P Guallar JP Rodriguez de la Concepción ML HIV-1 infection alters gene expression in adipose tissue which contributes to HIV-1/HAART-associated lipodystrophy 2006.

  • 22. Frank Palella;Rose Baker;Anne Moorman;Joan Chmiel;Kathleen Wood;John Brooks;Scott Holmberg; Mortality in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era: Changing Causes of Death and Disease in the HIV Outpatient Study 2006/09/01.

  • 23. Nina Friis-Møller Rodolphe Thiébaut Peter Reiss Conventional cardiovascular risk factors in HIV infection: how conventional are they?” Caroline Sabin; Signe Worm; 2008/05/01” Predicting the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients: the Data collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs Study 1 oct 2010.

  • 24. Clay Bavinger Eran Bendavid Katherine Niehaus Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV: A Systematic Review 26 March 2013.

  • 25. Pacheco AGFGB Fonseca MDJ Moreira RI: Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro Brazil: Overall and gender analysis 7th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis Treatment and Prevention 2013 Kuala Lumpur; Birmingham AL USA.

  • 26. Kenneth A. Lichtenstein Carl Armon Kate Buchacz Provider Compliance With Guidelines for Management of Cardiovascular Risk in HIV-Infected Patients the HOPS Investigators 2013.

  • 27. Lewis W. AIDS: cardiac findings from 115 autopsies. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1989; 32:207.

  • 28. Barbaro G Di Lorenzo G Grisorio B Barbarini G. Cardiac involvement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a multicenter clinical-pathological study. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio Cardiologico dei pazienti affetti da AIDS Investigators. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1998; 14:1071.

  • 29. Remick J Georgiopoulou V Marti C et al. Heart failure in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: epidemiology pathophysiology treatment and future research. Circulation 2014; 129:1781.

  • 30. Barbaro G Iacobellis G. Metabolic syndrome associated with HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr Diab Rep 2009; 9 : 37-42.

  • 31. Mondy KE Gottdiener J Overton ET et al. High Prevalence of Echocardiographic Abnormalities among HIV-infected Persons in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52:378.

  • 32.. Cerrato E D’Ascenzo F Biondi-Zoccai G et al. Cardiac dysfunction in pauci symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients: a meta-analysis in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Eur Heart J 2013; 34:1432.

  • 33. Holloway CJ Ntusi N Suttie J et al. Comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy reveal a high burden of myocardial disease in HIV patients. Circulation 2013; 128:814.

  • 34. Ntusi N O’Dwyer E Dorrell L et al. HIV-1-Related Cardiovascular Disease Is Associated With Chronic Inflammation Frequent Pericardial Effusions and Probable Myocardial Edema. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2016; 9:e004430.

  • 35. Lipshultz SE Easley KA Orav EJ et al. Cardiac dysfunction and mortality in HIV-infected children. The prospective P2C2 HIV multicenter study Circulation 2000;102:15428.

  • 36. Barbaro G Di Lorenzo G Grisorio B Barbarini G. Incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy and detection of HIV in myocardial cells of HIV-positive patients. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio Cardiologico dei Pazienti Affetti da AIDS. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:1093.

  • 37. John Gill et. al-Causes of Death in HIV-1-Infected Patients Treated with Antiretroviral Therapy 1996-2006: Collaborative Analysis of 13 HIV Cohort Studies Clin Infect Dis. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 August 18.

  • 38. “ Metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected individuals: underlying mechanisms and epidemiological aspects” Adelzon A Paula Melissa CN Falcão and Antonio G Pacheco 2013

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 53 53 6
PDF Downloads 41 41 6