Mean flow characteristics of two-dimensional wings in ground effect

Open access


The present study numerically investigates the aerodynamic characteristics of two-dimensional wings in the vicinity of the ground by solving two-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the turbulence closure model of the realizable k −ε model. Numerical simulations are performed at a wide range of the normalized ground clearance by the chord length ( 0.1 ≤ h / C ≤ 1.25 ) for the angles of attack ( 0° ≤α ≤10° ) in the prestall regime at a Reynolds number ( Re ) of 2×106 based on free stream velocity U∞ and the chord length. As the physical model of this study, a cambered airfoil of NACA 4406 has been selected by a performance test for various airfoils. The maximum lift-to-drag ratio is achieved at α = 4° and h / C = 0.1 . Under the conditions of α = 4° and h / C = 0.1 , the effect of the Reynolds number on the aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 4406 is investigated in the range of 2×105 ≤ Re≤ 2×109. As Re increases, l C and d C augments and decreases, respectively, and the lift-todrag ratio increases linearly.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Ahmed N.A. and Goonaratne J. 2002. Lift augmentation of a low-aspect-ratio thick wing in ground effect. Journal of Aircraft 39(2) pp.381-384.

  • Ahmed M.R. and Sharma S.D. 2005. An investigation on the aerodynamics of a symmetrical airfoil in ground effect.Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 29(6) pp.633-647.

  • Chun H.H. and Chang C.H. 2002. Longitudinal stability and dynamic motions of a small passenger WIG craft. Ocean Engineering 29(10) pp.1145-1162.

  • Chun H.H. Chang J.H. Paik K.J. and Chang S.I. 1997. Preliminary design of a 20 passenger PARWIG craft and construction of a 1/10 scale radio controlled model. Proceeding of International Conference on FAST Sea Transportation.Sydney Australia pp.513-520.

  • Duvigneau R. and Visonneau M. 2006. Optimization of a synthetic jet actuator for aerodynamic stall control. Computers and Fluids 35(6) pp.624-638.

  • Fink P.M. and Lastinger L.J. 1996. Aerodynamics Characteristics of Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings in Close Proximity to the ground. NASA TN D-926.

  • Fluent Inc 2009. Fluent user’s guide version 12.0.3: Fluent Inc Lebanon.

  • Gilarranz J. Traub L. and Rediniotis O. 2002. Characterization of a compact high power synthetic jet actuator for flow separation control. AIAA paper. 0127.

  • Han C. Cho L. and Cho J. 2005. Wake Shapes Behind Wings in Close Formation Flight Near the Ground. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 19(2) pp.674-681.

  • Hsiun C.M. and Chen C.K. 1995. Numerical investigation of the thickness and camber effects on aerodynamic characteristics for two-dimensional airfoils with ground effect in viscous flow. Transactions of the Japan society for aeronautical and space sciences 38(119) pp.77-90.

  • Hsiun C.M. and Chen C.K. 1996. Aerodynamic characteristics of a two-dimensional airfoil with ground effect. Journal of Aircraft 33(2) pp.386-392.

  • Kim S.K. Suh S.B. Lee D.H. and Kim K.E. 1997. Wind tunnel test study on the wings of WIG ship. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea 34(1) pp.60-67.

  • Kim Y. Lee J.E. Shin M.S. Kang K.J. and Kwon J.H. 2006. Turbulent flow simulation on the ground effect about a 2- dimensional airfoil. Journal of computational fluids engineering 11(4) pp.81-89.

  • Launder B.E. and Spalding D.B. 1974. The Numerical Computation of Turbulent Flows. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 3(2) pp.269-289.

  • Loftin L.K. and Smith H.A. 1949. Aerodynamic characteristics of 15 NACA airfoil sections at seven Reynolds numbers from 0.7×106 to 9.0×106 . NACA Technical Note 1945.

  • Moon Y.J. Oh H.J. and Seo J.H. 2005. Aerodynamic investigation of three-dimensional wings in ground effect for aerolevitation electric vehicle. Aerospace Science and Technology 9(6) pp.485-494.

  • Muzitani N. and Suzuki K. 1993. Numerical Analysis of 3-D WIG Advancing over Still Water Surface. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan 174 pp.35-46.

  • Nuhait A.O. and Mook D.T. 1989. Numerical Simulation of Wings in Steady and Unsteady Ground Effects. Journal of aircraft 26(12) pp.1081-1089.

  • Raymond A.E. 1921. Ground influence on aerofoil. NACA Technical Note 67.

  • Ravindran S. 1999. Active control of flow separation over an airfoil. Technical Report TM-1999-209838 NASA.

  • Recant I.R. 1939. Wind-tunnel investigation of ground effect on wings with flap. NACA Technical Note 705.

  • Reid E.G. 1927. A full-scale investigation of ground effect. NACA Technical Report 625.

  • Seerebrisky Y.M. 1946. Wind-tunnel investigation of the horizontal motion of a wing near the ground. NACA Technical Note 1095.

  • Shin M.S. Yang S.I. Joo Y.R. Kim S.K. Bae Y.S. Kim J.H. and Chun H.H. 1997. Wind tunnel test results for eight and twenty passenger class WIG effect ships. Proceeding of International Conference on FAST Sea Transportation.Sydney Australia pp.565-570.

  • Zerihan J. and Zhang X. 2000. Aerodynamics of a single element wing in ground effect. Journal of Aircraft 37(6) pp. 1058-1064.

  • Zhang X. Zerihan J. Ruhrmann A. and Deviese M. 2002. Tip vortices generated by a wing in ground effect. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics. Lisbon Portugal.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.930
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.997

CiteScore 2018: 2.03

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.826
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.741

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 163 41 0
PDF Downloads 47 19 0