Internationalization of the Entrepreneurial Activity of Social Purpose Organizations

Rafał Kusa 1
  • 1 Faculty of Management, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to analyse and identify patterns of international entrepreneurial activity of social purpose organizations. The article utilizes international social entrepreneurship literature to develop an understanding of the international activity of social entrepreneurs and to identify factors that differentiate their activity. A cluster analysis was conducted to identify patterns of international social entrepreneurial activity, which included: the subject of activity, the types of beneficiaries, the scope of activity, and the legal type of organization. As a result, a survey sample of 55 international social ventures was divided into 3 homogeneous groups. The groups were (1) solution providers, (2) entrepreneurial charities, and (3) intermediaries. The results of the analysis show the diversity of the international activities of social entrepreneurs, although only a portion of them operate internationally. These findings contribute to a greater understanding of social entrepreneurs’ motivation and the paths of their internationalization activity.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Agrawal, S., Gugnani, R. (2014), Creating successful business model: lessons for social entrepreneurship, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Vol. 18, No. 5–6, pp. 438–445.

  • Austin, J., Stevenson, H., Wei-Skillern, J. (2006), Social and Commercial Entrepreneurship: Same, Different, or Both?, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 1–22.

  • Bornstein, D., Davis, S. (2010), Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know, New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Borzaga, C., Defourny, J. (2001), Conclusions: social enterprises in Europe, a diversity of initiatives and prospects, in: C. Borzaga, J. Defourny (Eds.), The Emergence of Social Enterprise, London and New York: Routledge.

  • Boschee, J. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: The promise and the perils, in: A. Nicholls (Ed.), Social entrepreneurship: New models of sustainable social change, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 356–390.

  • Chen, S. (2012), Creating Sustainable International Social Ventures, Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 131–142.

  • Carlyle, E., Introducing FORBES’ 30 Under 30 Social Entrepreneurs, Class Of 2015, Forbes, 5.01.2015, available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/erincarlyle/2015/01/05/30-under-30-these-social-entrepreneurs-are-making-the-world-better/#f2111844af60, accessed: January 8, 2016.

  • Coolar (2016), web-page, available at: www.coolar.co, accessed: February 1, 2016.

  • Dees, J. G., Anderson, B. B. (2006), Framing a theory of social entrepreneurship: building on two schools of practice and thought, Research on social entrepreneurship, ARNOVA occasional paper series, Vol. 1, No. 3, 39–66.

  • Defourny, J., Nyssens, M. (2006), Defining social enterprise, in: M. Nyssens (Ed.), Social Enterprise. At the crossroads of market, public policies and civil society, London and New York, Routledge, pp. 3–26.

  • Defourny, J., Nyssens, M. (2012), The EMES approach of social enterprise in a comparative perspective. EMES Working Papers Series, Vol. 12, No. 3, available at http://www.emes.net, accessed: August 10, 2016.

  • Desa, G. (2012), Entrepreneurship: Bricolage as a Mechanism of Institutional Transformation, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 727–751.

  • Drinkwell (2016), web-page, available at: www.drinkwellsystems.com, accessed: February 1, 2016.

  • European Commission. (2011). Social Business Initiative: Creating a favorable climate for social enterprises, key stakeholders in the social economy and innovation. COM (2011) 682 final, Brussels.

  • Friedman, V. J., Desivilya H. (2010), Integrating social entrepreneurship and conflict engagement for regional development in divided societies, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 495–514.

  • Grameen Bank (2016), web-page, available at: http://www.grameen.com, accessed: February 16, 2016.

  • Hemingway, C. A. (2005), Personal Values as a Catalyst for Corporate Social Entrepreneurship, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 60, pp. 233–249.

  • Impact Foundation (2016), web-page, available at: www.impactfoundation.org, accessed: February 1, 2016.

  • Kerlin, J. A. (2006). Social enterprise in the United States and Europe: understanding and learning from the differences, Voluntas, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 247–263.

  • Koral, J. (2010), Kraków – U Pana Cogito, available at: www.ekonomiaspoleczna.pl/x/671711, accessed: February 2, 2016.

  • Luber, J. (2012), Krośnice – Spółdzielnia socjalna „Szklany Świat” Bombki, available at: www.ekonomiaspoleczna.pl/x/671387, accessed: February 20, 2016.

  • Mair, J., Marti, I. (2006), Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of World Business, No. 41, pp. 36–44.

  • Marshall, R. S. (2011), Conceptualizing the International For-Profit Social Entrepreneur, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 98, pp. 183–198.

  • Martin, R. L., Osberg, S. R. (2015), Two Keys to Sustainable Social Enterprise, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 93, No. 5, pp. 86–94.

  • Netka, K. (2015), Inwalidzi mogą produkować nawet na eksport, available at: www.popon.pl, accessed: September 9, 2015.

  • Nisolo (2016), web-page, available at: www.nisolo.com, accessed: February 1, 2016.

  • OneDollarGlasses (2016), web-page, available at: www.onedollarglasses.org, accessed: February 1, 2016.

  • Oviatt, B. M., McDougall, P. P. (2005), Defining International Entrepreneurship and Modeling the Speed of Internationalization, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 29, No. 5, pp. 537–553.

  • Peredo, A. M., McClean, M. (2006), Social Entrepreneurship: A Critical Review of the Concept, Journal of World Business, Vol. 41, pp. 56–65.

  • Rarick, C. A., Firlej, K., Duchatelet, M., Feldman L. (2011), MayaWorks: Weaving Threads of Entrepreneurship in Guatemala, Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 1–10.

  • Sharma, M., Wadhawan, P. (2009), A Cluster Analysis Study of Small and Medium Enterprises, IUP Journal of Management Research, Vol. 8, Issue 10, pp. 7–23.

  • Spear, R. (2006), Social entrepreneurship: A different model?, International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 33, No. 5/6, pp. 399–410.

  • Spółdzielnia Socjalna Emaus (2016), web-page, available at: www.spoldzielniaemaus.pl, accessed: February 16, 2016.

  • Tukamushaba, E. K., Orobia, L., George, B. P. (2011), Development of a conceptual model to understand international social entrepreneurship and its application in the Ugandan context, Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Vol. 9, pp. 282–298.

  • Wajszczak, P. (2016), Inaczej niż Wall Street, available at: www.ekonomiaspoleczna.pl, accessed: February 2, 2016.

  • Yunus M. (2008), Creating a world without poverty: social business and the future of capitalism, Global Urban Development, Vol. 4, No. 2. pp. 1–11.

  • Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D. O., Shulman, J. M. (2009), A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 24, pp. 519–532.

  • Zahra S. A., George, G. (2002), International Entrepreneurship: Research Contributions and Future Directions. In M. A. Hitt, R. D. Ireland, S. M. Camp, D. L. Sexton, (Eds.), Strategic Entrepreneurship: Creating a New Market, New York: Blackwell, pp. 255–288.

  • Zahra, S. A., Newey, L. R., Li, Y. (2014), On the Frontiers: The Implications of Social Entrepreneurship for International Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 137–158.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search