The requirement to contextualize research in the field of entrepreneurship has converted into the main theme from the last two decades. Therefore, this study bridges the gap by analyzing the relationship between the entrepreneurial activity in northern Europe and the Asian region countries in perspective of an individuals’ perception skills, attitudes, and the subjective norms. Based on our research, we propose a new conceptual framework to analyze EI in the context of entrepreneurship by using the theory of planned behavior (TBP) and the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). We empirically examine the influence of key developmental differences on the entrepreneurial intentions (EI) model with structural equation modeling (SEM). In the studied GEM countries, our findings affirm the applicability of the EI model across countries confirming that entrepreneurial activities are the key drivers of economic growth. The findings also recommend that the progression from perception to intent is modified across the 23 European and Asian countries, though there exist several cultural differences to the extent of casual effects also including the differences of influential factors. This study contributes to the debate on entrepreneurship by analyzing key factors influencing the EI model and extends our understanding of entrepreneurship.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Ajzen I. (2001). Nature and operation of attitudes.Annual Review of Psychology 52 27-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.27
Ajzen Icek and Martin Fishbein. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall.
Ajzen Icek & Madden T. J. (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behavior: Attitudes intentions and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 22(5) 453-474.
Ajzen Icek. (1988). Attitudes personality and behavior milton-keynes: Open University Press and Chicago IL: Dorsey Press.
Ajzen Icek. (1991). The theory of planned behavior Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50179-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Amoros Jose Ernesto and Niels Bosma. (2014). GEM 2013 Global Report Babson Park MA and Santiago Chile: Babson College and Universidad del Desarrollo.
Autio Erkko Robert H. Keeley Magnus Klofsten George G. C. Parker and Michael Hay. (2001). Entrepreneurial intent among students in scandinavia and in the USA Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies 2(2) 145-160 https://doi.org/10.1080/14632440110094632
Bae Tae Jun Shanshan Qian Chao Miao and James O. Fiet. (2014). The relationship between entrepreneurship education and EI: A Meta-Analytic Review Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 38(2) 217-254. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12095
Bagozzi R.P. Baumgartner J. & Yi Y. (1989). An investigation into the role of intentions as mediators of the attitude-behaviour relationship. Journal of Economic Psychology 10(1) 35-62.
Bandura Albert. (1982). The assessment and predictive generality of self-percepts of efficacy Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 13(3) 195-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7916(82)90004-0
Bird. B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intention. Academy of Management Review. 1(3) 442-453.
Bosma Niels Kent Jones ErkkoAutio and Jonathan Levie. (2008). GEM 2007 Executive Report Babson Park MA: Babson College London Business School and GERA.
Brewer T. D. Cinner J. E. Fisher R. Green A. & Wilson S. K. (2012). Market access population density and socioeconomic development explain diversity and functional group biomass of coral reef fish assemblages. Global Environmental Change 22(2) 399-406. doi:
Brewer, T. D., Cinner, J. E., Fisher, R., Green, A., & Wilson, S. K. (2012). Market access, population density, and socioeconomic development explain diversity and functional group biomass of coral reef fish assemblages. Global Environmental Change, 22(2), 399-406. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.01.006)| false
Bruton G. D. Ketchen D. J. and Ireland R. D. (2013). Entrepreneurship as a solution to poverty Journal of Business Venturing 28(6) 683-689.
Cassar G. & Friedman H. (2009). Does self‐efficacy affect entrepreneurial investment?. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal 3(3) 241-260.
Clemens B. (2006). Economic incentives and small firms: Does it pay to be green? Journal of Business Research 59(4) 492-500.
Conroy D. E. (2004). The unique psychological meanings of multidimensional fears of failing. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 26 484-491.
Corbett A. C. (2007). Learning asymmetries and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Journal of business venturing 22(1) 97-118.
Cruz L.D. Suprapti S. Yasa K. (2015). Aplikasi Theory of Planned Behavior DalamMembangkitkanNiatBerwirausahaBagiMahasiswaFakultasEkonomiUnpaz Dili Timor Leste. E-JurnalEkonomidanBisnisUniversitasUdayana. 4(12) 895-920.
Davidsson P. (1995). Culture structure and regional levels of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 7 41-52.
Davidsson P. &Wiklund J. (1997). Values beliefs and regional variations in new firm formation rates. Journal of Economic Psychology 18179-199.
Douglas Evan and Dean Shepard. (2002). Self-Employment as a career choice: Attitudes EI and utility maximization Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 26(3) 81-90.
European Commission. (2010). Europe 2020. A european strategy for smart sustainable and inclusive growth. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eu2020/pdf/COMPLET%20EN%20BARROSO%20%20%20007%20-%20Europe%202020%20-%20EN%20version.pdf (accessed 20 October 2014).
Fisher R. Maritz A. & Lobo A. (2014). Evaluating entrepreneurs’ perception of success. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research 20(5) 478-492. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijebr-10-20130157.
Gimeno J. Folta T. B. Cooper A. C. & Woo C. Y. (1997). Survival of the fittest? Entrepreneurial human capital and the persistence of underperforming firms. Administrative Science Quarterly 42(4) 750-783.
Gorgievski M. J. Ascalon E. M. & Stephan U. (2011). Small business Owners' success criteria a values approach to personal differences. Journal of Small Business Management 49(2) 207-232. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2011.00322.x.
Hamidi D. Wennberg K. & Berglund H. (2008). Creativity in entrepreneurship education. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 15(2) 304-20.
Hayton C. James Gerard George and Shaker A. Zahra (2002) “National Culture and Entrepreneurship: A Review of Behavioral Research” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 26(4) 33-52.
Henseler J. and Sarstedt M. (2013). Goodness-of-Fit Indices for Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Computational Statistics 28(2) 565-580.
Hosseini M. Dadfar H. &Brege S. (2018) Firm-level entrepreneurship and international performance: A simultaneous examination of orientation and action Journal of International Entrepreneurship. 6(8) 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-018-0235-6
Kelley Donna Niels Bosma and Jose Ernesto Amorós. (2011). GEM 2010 Global Report Babson Park MA and Santiago Chile: Babson College and Universidad del Desarrollo.
Kolvereid Lars and EspenIsaksen. (2006). “New business start-up and subsequent entry into selfemployment” Journal of Business Venturing 21(6) 866-885. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2005.06.008
Krueger F. Norris Michael D. Reilly and Alan I. Carsrud. (2000). Competing Models of EI Journal of Business Venturing 15(5-6) 411-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00033-0
Kuratko D. F. (2005). The emergence of entrepreneurship education: Development trends and challenges. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 29 577-597.
Lado A. A. &Vozikis G. S. (1996). Transfer of technology to promote entrepreneurship in developing countries: An integration and proposed framework. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 21 55.
Lee Soo Hoon and PohKam Wong. (2004). An exploratory study of technopreneurial intentions: a career anchor perspective Journal of Business Venturing 19(1) 7-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(02)00112-X
Lent R. W. & Hackett G. (1987). Career self-efficacy: Empirical status and future directions Journal of Vocational Behavior 30 347-382.
Linan Francisco and Yi-Wen Chen. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure EI Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 33(3) 593-617. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00318.x
Lumpkin G. T. &Dess G. G. (2001). Linking two dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation to firm performance: The moderating role of environment and industry life cycle. Journal of Business Venturing 16(5) 429-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(00)00048-3.
Martinez M. Yang T. & Aldrich H. (2011). Entrepreneurship as an evolutionary process: Research progress and challenges. Entrepreneurship Research Journal 1(1) 14-25. doi:
Martinez, M., Yang, T. & Aldrich, H. (2011). Entrepreneurship as an evolutionary process: Research progress and challenges. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 1(1), 14-25. doi:10.2202/2157-5665.1009.)| false
Parker S.C. & Robson M.T. (2004). Explaining international variations in self-employment: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries. Southern Economic Journal 71(2) 287-301.
Reijonen H. &Komppula R. (2007). Perception of success and its effect on small firm performance. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 14(4) 689-701. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626000710832776.
Reynolds P. D. (1987). New firms - societal contribution versus survival potential. Journal of Business Venturing 2(3) 231-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(87)90011-5.
Reynolds P. Bosma N. Autio E. Hunt S. De Bono N. Servais I. et al. (2005). Global entrepreneurship monitor: Data collection design and implementation 1998-2003. Small Business Economics 24(3) 205-231.
Robinson P. B. Stimpson D. V. Huefner J. C. & Hunt H. K. (1991). An attitude approach to the prediction of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 13-31.
Schumpeter J. A. (1990). The theory of economic development: an inquiry into profits capital credit interest and the business cycle. In M. Casson (Ed.) Entrepreneurship (pp. 105-134). Edward Elgar Pub. Ltd. Hants.
Shapero Albert and Lisa Sokol. (1982) “Social dimension of entrepreneurship” in C.A. Kent D.L. Sexton K.H. Vasper eds. Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship pp. 72-90 Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall.
Shapero Albert. (1984). “The entrepreneurial event” in C.A. Kent ed. The Environment for Entrepreneurship 21-40 Lexington MA: Lexington Books.
Shinnar S. Rachel Olivier Giacomin and Frank Janssen. (2012). “Entrepreneurial perceptions and intentions: The role of gender and culture” Entrepreneurship Theory andPractice 36(3) pp. 465-493. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2012.00509.x
Stam E. Hartog C. Van Stel A. &Thurik R. (2011). Ambitious entrepreneurship highgrowth firms and macroeconomic growth. In M. Minniti (Ed.) The dynamics of entrepreneurship: Evidence from the global entrepreneurship monitor data (pp. 231250). Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.
Stam E. Suddle K. Hessels S. J. A. & Van Stel A. (2009). High-growth entrepreneurs public policies and economic growth. In J. Leitao& R. Baptista (Eds.) Public policies for fostering entrepreneurship: A European perspective (Vol. 22 pp. 91110). International Studies in Entrepreneurship. New York NY: Springer Science.
Wach D. Stephan U. &Gorgievski M. J. (2016). More than money: Developing an integrative multifactorial measure of entrepreneurial success. International Small Business Journal 34(8) 1098-1121. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242615608469.
Wedayanti N. P. danGiantari I. (2016). PeranPendidikanKewirausahaanDalamMemediasiPengaruh Norma SubyektifTerhadapNiatBerwirausaha.E-JurnalManajemenUniversitasUdayana. 5(1) 533-560.