Nationalistic, Religious and Civil Components of Identity in Post-Soviet Georgia

Open access


Deep economic and democratic changes in Georgian society in last 20 years have conditioned the transformation of social environment in such a way that people had to change their views on society and their place in the new social environment. Changing attitudes on social reality affected and transformed the whole system of social identity. Transformation processes were characterized with reduced trust and tolerance among people and different social groups and with increase/weakening of different aspects of basic identities. Difficulties emerging from the process of formation of identity system hinder the development integration processes in the society. For the society in transition in the conditions of normative uncertainty and devaluation of values actuality of such problems as are the lack of trust on every level of relationship and disorientation of people, is of high importance. Our starting issue is that nowadays in the framework of construction of social identity basic identity encompasses civil, national, confessional, ideological elements which determine the state of a person in the system of social coordinates. The subject of this sociological research was to study the role of religion and ethnicity in the modern configuration of identity in Georgian society.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Anderson B. 1983. Imagined Communities: Refection on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London.

  • Barker M. 1981. The New Racism. London.

  • Berger P.L. 1999. The desecularization of the world: A global overview. Ed. by P.L. Berger. Michigan: William B.The desecularization of the world: Resurgent religion and world politics. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

  • Berger P. 1967. The Sacred Canopy. Elements of Theory of Religion. New York. Brubaker R. 2004. Ethnicity Without Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  • Brubaker R. 2011. Religion and Nationalism: Four Approaches. Nations and Nationalism.

  • Caucasus Institute for Peace Democracy and Development (CIPDD). 2009. Policy Paper.

  • Connor W. 1996. Beyond Reason: The Natures of the National Bond. J. Hutchinson and A. D. Smith (eds.) Ethnicity. Oxford N.Y.: Oxford University Press.

  • Conrad Adenauer Foundation. 2008. Georgian city population on religious and political issues. Available at:

  • Danelia N. 2007. Values of Georgian Media. Available at:[Accessed 25 December 2012].

  • Foucault M. 1980. Power / Knowledge. New York.

  • Gellner E. 1994. Nations and Nationalism. New Perspectives on the Past. Oxford; Cambridge: Blackwell.

  • Gellner E. 1995. Conditions of liberty. Civil Society and its rates. Moscow.

  • Giddens A. 1993. Sociology. 2ed ed. Oxfored: Polity Press. (In Russian. M. 1999.)

  • Glazer N. Moynihan D. 1975. Ethnicity. Theory and Experience. Cambridge.

  • Goldstein D.S. 1975. Trial of Faith. Religion and Politics in Tocqueville`s Thought. New York.

  • Greenfield L. 1992. Nationalism. Five Roads to Modernity. Harvard: Harvard University Press.

  • Habermas J. 1982. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  • Hall J.A. 1995. Civil Society: Theory History Comparison. CambridgeUK: Polity Press.

  • Harrison P. 1959. Authority and Power in the Free Church Tradition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Havel V. 1991. On Civil Society. Inglehart R. 1997. Modernization and Postmodernization. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton.

  • International Republican Institute (IRI) Baltic Surveys Ltd. / The Gallup Organization The Institute of Polling and Marketing (IPM). 2013. With funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Georgian National Study. Tbilisi.

  • International Religious Freedom Report. 2005. US State Department's Bureau of Democracy Human Rights and Labor.

  • Juergensmeyer M. 1993. The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. California.

  • Juergensmeyer M. 2005. Religion and Global Civil Society. Oxford.

  • Juergensmeyer M. 2003. Religious Nationalism and Transnationalism in a Global World. California.

  • Keane J. 1998. Civil Society: Old Images New Visions. Cambridge UK: Polity Press.

  • Khaindrava I. 2004. Religion in Georgia: XX. religion and Politics on The Caucasus. Published by: Caucasian Institute of Media. Erevan.

  • Kohn H. 1967. The Idea of Nationalism. - New York: McMillan.

  • Lee R. 1960. The Social Sources of Church Unity. NewYork: Abingdon.

  • Little D. 1995. Belief Ethnicity and Nationalism Nationalism and Ethnic Politics. Vol. 1 no. 2.

  • Luckmann T. 1990. Shrinking transcendence expanding religion? The Paul Hanly Furfey lecture. Sociological Analysis. Vol. 50. No. 2.

  • Luckmann T. 1967. Invisible Religion. New York.

  • Middel B. 2008. State and Religion in Black Sea Region. Available at: http://www.

  • Moynihan D. 1993. Pendaemium: Ethnicity and International Politics. New York. Nash D. Berger P. 1966. The Child the Family and the Religious Revival in Suburbia. Journal for the Scientifc Study of Religion.

  • The Ombudsman's Offce Tolerance Centre information about religious diversity of Georgia.

  • Open Society Georgia Foundation and “BCG (Business Consulting Group) Research”. 2006. Values of Georgian Society. Reports Analysis Recommendations 7. Tbilisi.

  • Papuashvili S. 4/25/2008. State of freedom of religion in Georgia since the adoption of Constitutional Agreement between Government and the Orthodox Church of Georgia. Religious freedom report Human Rights Centre (HRIDC).

  • Putnam R. D. Leonardi R. Nanetti R. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Robinson J. M. White G. 1997. The Role of Civic Organizations in Service Provision: Towards Synergy. Research for Action. WIDER

  • Rozen R.D. 2001. Nationalism and Religious Fundamentalism in Modern Secular Society. Moscow.

  • Seilgman A. B. 1992. The Idia of Civil Society. New York: The Free Press.

  • Siamashvili G. 2003. Religion and Socio-political Life of Georgia. Central Asia and The Caucasus 6(30).

  • Smith A. 1991. National Identity. London.

  • Svanidze G. 2002. National minorities in Georgia review. Downloaded 25 March 2002 from

  • Tester K. 1992. Civil society. London; New York NY: Routledge.

  • Verdery K. 1993. Whither ‘Nation’ and ‘Nationalism’? Daedalus 122 3 p. 38.

  • Weber M. 1978. Economy and Society vol. 1. p. 388.

  • Weber M. 1961. Ethnic Groups. In: Theories of Society (Ed. by Talcott Parsons et al) − Clencoe (III): Free Press.

  • Weber M. (1930) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism trans. Talcott Parsons. London: Allen and Unwin.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 217 61 1
PDF Downloads 122 37 0