Leaf area is one of the most important parameters for characterizing crop growth and development, and its measurement is useful for examining the effects of agronomic management on crop production. It is related to interception of radiation, photosynthesis, biomass accumulation, transpiration and gas exchange in crop canopies. Several direct and indirect methods have been developed for determining leaf area. The aim of this study is to develop an indirect method, based on the use of a mathematical model, to compute leaf area in an onion crop using non-destructive measurements with the condition that the model must be practical and useful as a Decision Support System tool to improve crop management. A field experiment was conducted in a 4.75 ha commercial onion plot irrigated with a centre pivot system in Aguas Nuevas (Albacete, Spain), during the 2010 irrigation season. To determine onion crop leaf area in the laboratory, the crop was sampled on four occasions between 15 June and 15 September. At each sampling event, eight experimental plots of 1 m2 were used and the leaf area for individual leaves was computed using two indirect methods, one based on the use of an automated infrared imaging system, LI-COR-3100C, and the other using a digital scanner EPSON GT-8000, obtaining several images that were processed using Image J v 1.43 software. A total of 1146 leaves were used. Before measuring the leaf area, 25 parameters related to leaf length and width were determined for each leaf. The combined application of principal components analysis and cluster analysis for grouping leaf parameters was used to reduce the number of variables from 25 to 12. The parameter derived from the product of the total leaf length (L) and the leaf diameter at a distance of 25% of the total leaf length (A25) gave the best results for estimating leaf area using a simple linear regression model. The model obtained was useful for computing leaf area using a non-destructive method.
Ackley, W.B., Crandall, P.C. and Rusell, T.S. 1958. The use of linear measurements in estimating leaf areas. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science72: 326-330.
Alhamed, A. Lakshmivarahan, S. and Stensrund, D.J. 2002. Cluster analysis of multimodel ensemble data from SAMEX. Monthly Weather Review130: 226–256.
Antunes, W.C., Pompelli, M.F., Carretero, D.M. and DaMatta, F.M. 2008. Allometric models for non-destructive leaf area estimation in coffee. Annals of Applied Biology153:33-40.
Ashley, D.A., Doss, B.D. and Bennet, O.L. 1963. A method for determining leaf area in cotton. Agronomy Journal55: 584-585.
Astegiano, E.D., Favaro, J.C. and Bouzo, C.A. 2001. Estimación del área foliar en distintos cultivares de tomate utilizando medidas lineares foliares. Investigación Agraria Producción y Protección Vegetal16: 249-256.
Azzi, G. 1959. Ecología Agraria. Ed. Salvat, S.A. Madrid, España.
Bachman, P. and Keller, B. 1965. Messeinrichtung zur Bestimmung von Blattoberflächen. Schweiz Forswes116: 623-625.
Baker, B., Olszyk, D.M. and Tingey, D. 1996. Digital image analysis to estimate leaf area. Journal of Plant Phisiology148: 530-535.
Balakrishnan, K., Sundaram, K.M., Ajunan, A. and Matarajatnam, N.A. 1992. A simple method for estimating leaf area in tomato. Madras Agricultural Journal79: 162-163.
Beerling, D.J. and Fry, J.C. 1990. A comparison of the accuracy, variability and speed of five different methods for estimating leaf area. Annals of Botany65: 483-488.
Cittadini, E.D. and Peri, P.L. 2006. Estimation of leaf area in sweet cherry using a non-destructive method. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria35: 143-150.
Coombs, J. and Hall, D.O. 1982. Whole Plant Photosynthesis and Productivity. In: “Techniques in Bioproductivity and Photosynthesis” (ed. J. Coombs, D.O. Hall, and S.P. Long), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pages 171-184.
Daughtry, C. 1990. Direct measurements of canopy structure. Remote Sensing Reviews5: 45-60.
De Jesus, W.C., Do Vale, F.X.R., Coelho, R.R. and Costa, L.C. 2001. Comparison of two methods for estimating leaf area index on common bean. Agronomy Journal93: 989-991.
De Juan, J. A., Ortega, J. F. and Tarjuelo, J. M. 2003. “Sistemas de cultivo. Evaluación de itinerarios técnicos”. Mundi Prensa, Madrid, España, 830 pages.
Elsner, E.A. and Jubb, G.L. 1988. Leaf area estimation of Concord grape leaves from simple linear measurements. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture39: 95-97.
Enciso, J., Wiendenfeld, B., Jifon, J. and Nelson, S. 2009. Onion yield and quality response to two irrigation scheduling strategies. Scientia Horticulturae120: 301–305.
Frear, D.H.1935 Photolelectric apparatus for measuring leaf areas. Journal of Plant Phisiology10: 69-574.
Gallagher, J.N. and Biscoe, R.V. 1978. Radiation, absorption, growth and yield of cereals. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science91: 47-60.
Gamiely, S., Randle, W.M., Mills, H.A. and Smittle, D.A. 1991. A rapid and non-destructive method for estimating leaf area of onions. Hortscience26: 206.
Gerdel, R.W. and Saltter, R.M. 1928. Measurement of leaf area using the photoelectric cell. American Society of Agronomy20: 635-642.
Giovanardi, R. 1972. Stima dell’area fogliare mediante misru biometriche ed applicazioni allo studio della dinamica di accrescimento del mais. Italian Journal of Agronomy6: 243-247.
Goodall, D.W. 1947. Diurnal changes in the area of cacao leaves. Annals of Botany11: 449-451.
Gower, S.T., Kucharik, C.J. and Norman, J.M. 1999. Direct and indirect estimation of leaf area index, fAPAR, and net primary production of terrestrial ecosystems. Remote Sensing of Environment70: 29-51.
Haan, C.T. 2002. “Statistical Methods in Hydrology”. Iowa State University Press, IO, USA, 378 pages.
Hammer, G.L., Sinclair, T.R., Boote, K.J., Wright, G.C., Meinke, H. and Bell, M. 1995. A peanut simulation model. I Model development and testing. Agronomy Journal87: 1085-1093.
Hatfield, J.L., Kanemasu, E.T., Asrar, G., Jackson, R.D., Pinter, P.J., Reginato, R.J. and Idso, S.B. 1985. Leaf area estimates from spectral measurements over various planting dates of wheat. Intern. Journal of Remote Sensing6: 167-175.
Hibbard, R.P., Grisby, B.H. and Keck, W.G. 1937. A low light intensity photoelectric device for the measuring of leaf areas. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science23: 141-147.
Hoffman, G.J. 1971. Estimating leaf area from length measurements for hybrid granex onion. Agronomy Journal63: 948-949.
Hooker, R. H. 1907. Correlation of the weather and crops. Journal of the Statistical Society70: 1-51.
Hotelling, H. 1933. Analysis of a complex of statistical variables into principal components. Journal of Educational Psychology24: 417-441.
Jiménez, M., de Juan, J.A., Tarjuelo, J.M. and Ortega, J.F. 2010. Effect of irrigation uniformity on evapotranspiration and onion yield. Journal of Agricultural Science148: 139-157.
Johnson, R.E. 1967. Comparison of methods for estimating cotton leaf area. Agronomy Journal59: 493-494.
Jonckheere, I., Fleck, S., Nackaerts, K., Muys, B., Coppin, P., Weiss, M. and Baret, F. 2004. Review of methods for in situ leaf area index determination: Part I. Theories, sensors and hemispherical photography. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology121: 19-35.
Kershaw, J.H. and Larsen, D.R. 1992. A rapid technique for recording and measuring the leaf area of conifer needle samples. Tree Physiology11: 411-417.
Kiniry, J.R., Sanderson, M.A., Williams, J.R., Tischler, C.R., Hussey, M.A., Ocumpaugh, W.R., Read, J.C., Esbroeck, G. and Reed, R.L. 1996. Simulation Alamo, switchgrass with the ALMANAC model. Agronomy Journal88: 607-613.
Kucharik, C.J., Norman, J.M. and Gower, S.T. 1998. Measurements of branch area and adjusting leaf area index to indirect measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology91: 69-88.
Kumar, S., Imtiyaz, M., Kumar, A. and Singh, R. 2007. Response of onion (Allium cepa L.) to different levels of irrigation water. Agricultural Water Management89: 161–166.
Kussner, R. and Mosandl, R. 2000. Comparison of direct and indirect estimation of leaf area index in mature Norway spruce stands of eastern Germany. Canadian Journal of Forest Research30: 440-447.
Kvet, J. and Marshall, J.K. 1971. Assessment of leaf area and other assimilating plant surfaces. In: “Methods of Studing Photosynthetic Production of Plants” (ed. Z. Sestak and J. Catsky), Junk Publishers, The Netherdlands, pages 315-331.
Legorburo, A. 2005. Estimación del área foliar en Vitis vinifera L. Tesis Doctoral. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Albacete, España
Liebig, H.P. 1978. Einflüsse endogner und exogener faktoren auf die ertragsbildung von salatgurken unter besondener berücksichtigung von ertragsrhytmik, bestandesdichte and schnittmabnahmen. Dissertation, University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
Llovet, J., Delgado, D. and Martínez, J. 2000. Statgraphics Plus 4. Guía Práctica para Usuarios. Anaya Multimedia S.A., Madrid, España.
Lyon, C.J. 1948. A factor method for the area of tomato leaves. Journal of Plant Physiology23: 634-635.
Malinowski, E.R., and Howery, D.G., 1980. “Factor Analysis in Chemistry”. Wiley-InterScience, New York, USA, 251 pages
Manivel, L. and Weaver, R.J. 1973. Biometric correlation between leaf area and length measurements of Grenache grape leaves. Hortscience9: 27-28.
Marshall, J.K. 1968. Methods for leaf area measurement of large and small samples. Photosynthetica2: 41-47.
McKee, G.W. 1964. A coefficient for computing leaf area in hybrid corn. Agronomy Journal56: 240-241.
Miller, E.C. 1938. “Plant Physiology”. McGraw-Hill Co, New York, USA, 1201 pages.
Nyakwende, E., Paull, C.J. and Atherton, J.G. 1997. Non – destructive determination of leaf area in tomato plants using image processing. Journal of Horticultural Science72: 255-262.
Olfati, J.A., Peyvast, G., Sanavi, M., Slaehi, M. Mahdipour, M. and Nosratie-Rad, Z. 2009. Comparison of leaf area estimation from linear measurements of Red Cabbage. International Journal of Vegetables Science15: 185-192.
Palaniswamy, K.M. and Gomez, K.A. 1974. Length-width method for estimatin leaf area of rice. Agronomy Journal66: 430-433.
Papadakis, J. 1966. “Climates of the World and Their Agricultural Potentialities”. Hemisferio Sur, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 174 pages.
Pearson, K. 1902. On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space. Philosophical Magazine2: 559-572.
Peksen, E. 2007. Non-destructive leaf area estimation model for faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Scientia Horticulturae113: 322-328.
Peña, D. 2000. “Estadística: Modelos y métodos 2. Modelos lineales y series temporales”. Alianza Editorial S.A. Madrid, España, 550 páginas.
Pereira, L. S. and Allen, R. G. 1999. Crop water requirements. In: “CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering, Vol. I: Land and Water Engineering, Chapter 5: Irrigation and Drainage” (ed. H.N. van Lier, L.S. Pereira and F.R. Steiner), St. Joseph, MI, USA, pages 213–262.
Ray, R.C. and Singh, R.P. 1989. Leaf area estimation in capsicum. Scientia Horticulturae39: 181-188.
Robbins, N.S. and Pharr, D.M. 1987. Leaf area prediction models for cucumber from linear measurements. Hortscience22: 1264-1266.
Sarkar, S., Goswami, S.B., Mallick, S. and Nanda, M.K. 2008. Different indices to characterize water use pattern of micro-sprinkler irrigated onion (Allium cepa L.). Agricultural Water Management95: 625–632.
Sepúlveda, G. and Kliewer, M. 1983. Estimation of leaf area of two grapevine cultivars using laminae linear measurements and fresh weight. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture4: 221-226.
Serdar, U. and Demirsoy, H. 2006. Non-destructive leaf area estimation in chestnut. Scientia Horticulturae108: 227-230.
Silvestre, J. and Eiras-Dias, J.E. 2001. Allometric relationship between leaf area and length measurements of Vitis vinifera L. leaves. Ciencia e Técnica Vitivinicola16: 35-42.
Smith, R. and Kliewer, W.M. 1983. Estimation of Thompson Seedless grapevine leaf area. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture35: 16-22.
Tarbell, K.A. and Reid, J.F. 1991. A computer vision system for characterizing corn growth and development. Transactions of the ASAE34: 2245-2255.
Tei, F., Scaife, A. and Aikman, P. 1996. Growth of lettuce, onion, and red beet. 1. Growth analysis, light interception, and radiation use efficiency. Annals of Botany78: 633-643.
Torri, S.I., Descalzi, C. and Frusso, E. 2009. Estimation of leaf area in Pecan cultivars. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria36: 53-58.
Unal, Y., Kindap, T. and Karaca, M. 2003. Redefining the climate zones of Turkey using cluster analysis. International Journal of Climatology23: 1045–1055.
USDA, 2006. “Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 10th ed”. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services, Washington D.C., USA, 339 pages.
Watson, D.J. 1947. Comparative physiological studies in the growth of field crops. Variation in net assimilation rate and leaf area between species and varieties, and within and between years. Annals of Botany11: 41-76.
Winter, E.J., Salter, P.J., Stanhill, G. and Bleasdale, J.K. 1956. Some methods of measuring leaf area. In: ” The growth of leaves” (ed. F.L. Milthorpe), Butterworths Scientific publications, London, England.
Yonekawa, S., Sakai, N. and Kitani, O. 1996. Identification of idealized leaf types using simple dimensionless shape factors by image analysis. Transaction of the ASAE39: 1525-1533.