Quantitative Application of the Whole-Plant Concept to the Messinian – Piacenzian Flora of Italy

Abstract

The analysis of a taxonomical database containing Italian pollen and macrofossil records of the Messinian - Piacenzian time interval allowed us to evaluate the possible assemblage of different parts within a Whole-Plant Concept. The fossil plant parts that we deemed more significant were: “herbarium-like” specimens, foliage, female and male reproductive organs and stem parts (mainly woody axes). When it has been possible, we recognized these different parts as putative products of a single ancient plant species. Then we operated a random selection of 100 taxonomical entities (potential whole-plant taxa, indicated by the progressive numbers WP001, WP002, etc.) and we analysed their fossil record in order to quantify the proportion of ancient plants represented by one, two or more different parts in the fossil record of the studied area and time slice. Our quantitative analysis showed that 63 % of the potential whole-plant taxa are represented by a single type of plant part, 23 % are represented by two plant parts, and 14 % by three or more different parts. A few taxa were selected as examples to show in detail the implications of applying the Whole-Plant Concept; this involved a taxonomic discussion of Actinidia, Ailanthus, Engelhardia, Eucommia, Glyptostrobus and Taxodium.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Allason, B., Carraro, F., Ghibaudo, G., Paganelli, A., Ricci, B. (1981): Prove palinologiche dell’età pleistocenica inferiore di depositi “villafranchiani” in Piemonte [Palynological proves of the Early Pleistocene age for “Villafranchian” deposits in Piedmont]. - Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, 4: 39-47.

  • Bartolucci, F., Peruzzi, L., Galasso, G., Albano, A., Alessandrini, A., Ardenghi, N. M. G., Astuti, G., Bacchetta, G., Ballelli, S., Banfi, E., Barberis, G., Bernardo, L., Bouvet, D., Bovio, M., Cecchi, L., Di Pietro, R., Domina, G., Fascetti, S., Fenu, G., Festi, F., Foggi, B., Gallo, L., Gubellini, L., Gottschlich, G., Iamonico, D., Iberite, M., Jinénez-Mejías, P., Lattanzi, E., Martinetto, E., Masin, R. R., Medagli, P., Passalacqua, N. G., Peccenini, S., Pennesi, R., Pierini, B., Poldini, L., Prosser, F., Raimondo, F. M., Marchetti, D., Roma-Marzio, F., Rosati, L., Santangelo, A., Scoppola, A., Scortegagna, A., Selvaggi, A., Selvi, F., Soldano, A., Stinca, A., Wagensommer, R. P., Wilhalm, T., Conti, F., Barberis, G. (2018): An updated checklist of the vascular flora native to Italy. - Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology, 152(2): 179-303. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2017.1419996

  • Basilici, G., Martinetto, E., Pavia, G., Violanti, D. (1997): Paleoenvironmental evolution in the Pliocene marine- coastal succession of Val Chiusella (Ivrea, NW Italy). - Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 36(1-2): 23-52.

  • Benvenuti, M., Bertini, A., Conti, C., Dominici, S. (2007): Integrated analyses of litho- and biofacies in a Pliocene cyclothemic, alluvial to shallow marine succession (Tuscany, Italy). - Geobios, 40(2): 143-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2006.08.001

  • Berger, W. (1958): Untersuchungen an der obermiozänen (sarmatischen) Flora von Gabbro (Monti Livornesi) in der Toskana. - Palaeontographica Italica, 51: 1-96.

  • Bertini, A. (1992): Palinologia ed aspetti ambientali del versante adriatico dell’Appennino centro-settentrionale durante il Messiniano e lo Zancleano [Palynology and palaeoenvironmental aspects of the Adriatic slope of the central-northern Apennine during Messinian and Zanclean]; Ph.D. thesis. - MS, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy, 88 pp. (in Italian) (copy in library of the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence)

  • Bertini, A. (1994a): Palynological investigations on Upper Neogene and Lower Pleistocene sections in central and northern Italy. - Memorie della Società Geologica Italiana, 48: 431-443.

  • Bertini, A. (1994b): Messinian-Zanclean vegetation and climate in North-Central Italy. - Historical Biology, 9: 3-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/10292389409380483

  • Bertini, A. (2001): Pliocene climatic cycles and altitudinal forest development from 2.7 Ma in the northern Apennines (Italy): evidences from the pollen record of the Stirone section (5.1 to 2.2 Ma). - Geobios, 34: 253-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(01)80074-7

  • Bertini, A. (2002): Palynological evidence of upper Neogene environments in Italy. - Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica, 46: 15-25.

  • Bertini, A. (2006): The Northern Apennines palynological record as a contribute for the reconstruction of the Messinian palaeoenvironments. - Sedimentary Geology, 188(189): 235-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2006.03.007

  • Bertini, A. (2010): Pliocene to Pleistocene palynoflora and vegetation in Italy: state of the art. - Quaternary International, 225: 5-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2010.04.025

  • Bertini, A., Martinetto, E. (2008): Messinian to Zanclean vegetation and climate of Northern and Central Italy. -Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 47(2): 105-121.

  • Bertini, A., Martinetto, E. (2011): Reconstruction of vegetation transects for the Messinian Piacenzian of Italy by means of comparative analysis of pollen, leaf and carpological records. - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 304(3): 230-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.09.005

  • Bertini, A., Martinetto, E. (2014): The Neogene flora of the Italian peninsula and Sicily. - In: Kustatscher, E., Roghi, G., Bertini, A., Miola, A (eds), Palaeobotany of Italy. Naturmuseum Sudtirol, Bolzano, pp. 248-279.

  • Bertoldi, R. (1988): Una sequenza palinologica di età Rusciniana nei sedimenti lacustri basali del bacino di Aulla- Olivola (Val di Magra) [A pollen sequence of Ruscinian age in the lacustrine sediments at the bottom of the Aulla- Olivola basin (Val di Magra)]. - Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 94(1): 105-138. (in Italian)

  • Bertoldi, R. (1996): Pollini. Il Complesso Inferiore [Pollen.The Lower Complex]. - In: Carraro, F. (ed.), Revisione del Villafranchiano nell’area-tipo di Villafranca d’Asti [Revision of the Villafranchian in the type-area of Villafranca d’Asti]. - Il Quaternario, 9: 79-85. (in Italian)

  • Bertoldi, R., Binotti, A., Castello, F. (1994): Reevesia and Itea in the pollen flora of the Upper Neogene continental deposit at Sarzana (lower Magra valley, Northern Italy). - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 80: 159-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(94)90100-7

  • Bertoldi, R., Martinetto, E. (1995): Ricerche paleobotaniche (palinologiche e paleocarpologiche) sulla successione “villafranchiana” del Rio Ca’ Viettone [Palaeobotanical (palynological and palaeocarpological) researches on the “Villafranchian” succession of the Ca’ Viettone brook]. - Il Quaternario, 8(2): 403-422. (in Italian)

  • Biondi, E. (1982): Taxodioxylon gypsaceum (Göppert) Kräusel, legno fossile rinvenuto nel Miocene dell’Italia centrale [Taxodioxylon gypsaceum (Göppert) Kräusel, fossil wood found in the Miocene of central Italy]. - Giornale Botanico Italiano, 116: 227-233. (in Italian) https://doi.org/10.1080/11263508209428069

  • Biondi, E., Koeniguer, J.-C., Privé-Gill, C. (1985): Bois fossiles et végétations arborescentes des régions méditerranéennes durant le Tertiaire. - Giornale Botanico Italiano, 119: 167-196. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263508509428014

  • Bomfleur, B., Decombeix, A.-L., Escapa, I. H., Schwendemann, A. B., Axsmith, B. (2013) : Whole-plant concept and environment reconstruction of a Telemachus conifer (Voltziales) from the Triassic of Antarctica. - International Journal of Plant Sciences, 174(3): 425-444. https://doi.org/10.1086/668686

  • Bonci, M. C., Vannucci, G., Tacchino, S., Piazza, M. (2011): Oligocene fossil leaves of the Perrando Collection: history, preservation, and paleoclimatic meaning. - Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 50(3): 145-164.

  • Brambilla, G. (1984): I vegetali fossili delle argille grigie plioceniche del T. Tornago (BG) nelle collezioni del Museo Civico “E. Caffi” di Bergamo [Fossil plants of the Pliocene gray clays of the Tornago stream (province of Bergamo) in the collections of the “E. Caffi” Museum of Bergamo]. - Rivista del Museo di Scienze Naturali di Bergamo, 8: 3-16. (in Italian)

  • Brambilla, G. (1992a): Prime considerazioni cronologico- ambientali sulle filliti del Miocene superiore di Portalbera (Pavia-Italia settentrionale) [First chronological- palaeoenvironmental considerations on the fossil leaves from the upper Miocene of Portalbera (Pavia- Northern Italy)]. - In: Pearce, M. (ed.), Nuove ricerche archeologiche in provincia di Pavia [New archaeological researches in the province of Pavia].. Civico Museo Archeologico di Casteggio e dell’Oltrepò Pavese, Casteggio, pp. 109-113. (in Italian)

  • Brambilla, G. (1992b): Le filliti plioceniche del Canton Ticino nelle collezioni del Museo Cantonale di Storia Naturale di Lugano: considerazioni sistematiche, cronologiche ed ambientali [Pliocene fossil leaves from Canton Ticino in the collections of the Cantonale Museum of Natural History of Lugano: systematical, chronological and environmental considerations]. - Bollettino della Società Ticinese di Scienze Naturali, 80(2): 63-95. (in Italian)

  • Brambilla, G., Gallo, M. (2002): Analisi stratigrafica e paleobotanica della successione messiniana di Bric Santa Margherita (Nizza Monferrato, Asti, Italia NW) [Stratigraphic and palaeobotanical analysis of the Messinian succession of Bric Santa Margherita (Nizza Monferrato, Asti, Italia NW)]. - Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, 19(1): 191-283. (in Italian)

  • Brambilla, G., Ronchetti, G., Vittadini Zorzoli, M. (1982): Semi e filliti delle argille messiniane (Miocene superiore) di Carbonara Scrivia (Alessandria) [Seeds and fossil leaves of the Messinian clays (upper Miocene) of Carbonara Scrivia (Alessandria)]. - Atti Istituto Botanico e del Laboratorio Crittogamico Pavia, 1: 31-40. (in Italian)

  • Call, V. B., Dilcher, D. L. (1997): The fossil record of Eucommia (Eucommiaceae) in North America. - American Journal of Botany, 84: 798-814. https://doi.org/10.2307/2445816

  • Cavallo, O., Martinetto, E. (1996): Flore plioceniche del bacino del Tanaro [Pliocene floras of the Tanaro basin]. - Alba Pompeia, 17(1): 5-31. (in Italian)

  • Cavallo, P., Martinetto, E. (2001): Flore carpologiche del Pliocene di Castelletto Cervo (Biella) [Carpological floras of the Pliocene of Castelletto Cervo (Biella)]. - Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali Torino, 18(2): 277-343. (in Italian)

  • Ciangherotti, A., Esu, D., Martinetto, E., Giuntelli, P. (2007): The remarkable Middle Pliocene non-marine mollusc record from Ceresole d’Alba, Piedmont, north-west Italy: biochronology, palaebiogeography and palaeoecology supported by fossil plants. - Geobios, 40: 573-587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2006.10.005

  • Chat, J., Jáuregui, B., Petit, R. J., Nadot, S. (2004): Reticulate evolution in kiwifruit (Actinidia, Actinidiaceae) identified by comparing their maternal and paternal phylogenies. - American Journal of Botany, 91(5): 736-747. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.91.5.736

  • Chiarini, E., Giardini, M., Mattei, M., Papasodaro, F., Porreca, M., Sadori, L. (2009): Plio-Quaternary geological evolution of the high Salto river valley (central Italy): the Marano de’ Marsi unit. - Il Quaternario, 22(2): 325-344.

  • Cimino, D., Chiantore, O., Martinetto, E., Damarco, P., Poli, T. (2016): Leaf compressions from the Late Miocene sections of NW Italy: research on an efficient, easy and quick consolidation treatment. - Fossil Imprint, 72(3-4): 172-182. https://doi.org/10.14446/FI.2016.172

  • Clayton, J. W., Soltis, P. S., Soltis, D. E. (2009): Recent long-distance dispersal overshadows ancient biogeographical patterns in a pantropical angiosperm family (Simaroubaceae, Sapindales). - Systematic Biology, 58(4): 395-410. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syp041

  • Cleal, C. J., Thomas, B. A. (2010): Botanical nomenclature and plant fossils. - Taxon, 59(1): 261-268.

  • Cohen, K. M., Finney, S. C., Gibbard, P. L., Fan, J.-X. (2013; updated): The ICS International Chronostratigraphic Chart. - Episodes, 36: 199-204. (last update February 2017; available on-line http://www.stratigraphy.org/ ICSchart/ChronostratChart2017-02.pdf)

  • Corbett, S. L., Manchester, S. R. (2004): Phytogeography and fossil history of Ailanthus (Simaroubaceae). - International Journal of Plant Sciences, 165: 671-690. https://doi.org/10.1086/386378

  • Crippa, G., Angiolini, L., Bottini, C., Erba, E., Felletti, F., Frigerio, C., Hennissen, J. A. I., Leng, M. J., Petrizzo, M. R., Raffi, I., Raineri, G., Stephenson, M. H. (2016): Seasonality fluctuations recorded in fossil bivalves during the early Pleistocene: implications for climate change. - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 446: 234-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.01.029

  • Drew, B. T., Sytsma, K. J. (2012): Phylogenetics, biogeography, and staminal evolution in the tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae). - American Journal of Botany, 99(5): 933−953. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1100549

  • Fauquette, S., Bertini, A. (2003): Quantification of the northern Italy Pliocene climate from pollen data: evidence for a very peculiar climate pattern. - Boreas, 32(2): 361-369. https://doi.org/10.1080/03009480301825

  • Fischer, T. C., Butzmann, R. (2000): Die neogene Flora von Meleto (Valdarno, Italien). Paläobotanik, Paläoökologie und Paläoklima. - Flora Tertiaria Mediterranea, 5(6): 1-186.

  • Forno, M. G., Gattiglio, M., Comina, C., Barbero, D., Bertini, A., Doglione, A., Gianotti, F., Irace, A., Martinetto, M., Mottura, A., Sala, B. (2015): Stratigraphic and tectonic notes on the Villafranca d’Asti succession in the type-area and Castelnuovo Don Bosco sector (Asti reliefs, Piedmont). - Alpine and Mediterranean Quaternary, 28(1): 5-27.

  • Gentilini, G. (1989): The Upper Miocene dragonflies of Monte Castellaro (Marche, Central Italy) (Odonata Libellulidae). - Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana, 67(2): 251-271 (1988).

  • Gregor, H. J. (1990): Contribution to the Late Neogene and Early Quaternary floral history of the Mediterranean. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 62; 309-338. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(90)90093-X

  • Günther, T., Gregor, H.-J. (1990): Computer-Analyse mitteleuropäischer Frucht- und Samenfloren Europas, Band 2. - Documenta naturae, 50(2): 1-159.

  • Hably, L. (2001): Fruits and leaves of Ailanthus Desf. from the Tertiary of Hungary. - Acta Palaeobotanica, 41: 207-219.

  • Hably, L. (2010): The Early Oligocene flora of Santa Giustina (Liguria, Italy) - Revision and comparison with the flora of the Tard Clay Formation. - Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 116: 405-420.

  • Iaccarino, S. M., Bertini, A., Di Stefano, A., Ferraro, L., Gennari, R., Grossi, F., Lirer, F., Manzi, V., Menichetti, E., Ricci Lucchi, M., Taviani, M., Sturiale, G., Angeletti, L. (2008): The Trave section (Monte dei Corvi, Ancona, Central Italy): an integrated paleontological study of the Messinian deposits. - Stratigraphy, 5(3-4): 281-306.

  • Kirchheimer, F. (1957): Die Laubgewächse der Braunkohlenzeit mit einem kritischen Katalog ihrer Früchte und Samen. - W. Knapp Verlag, Halle/Saale, 783 pp.

  • Kovar-Eder, J., Kvaček, Z., Martinetto, E., Roiron, P. (2006): Late Miocene to Early Pliocene vegetation of southern Europe (7-4 Ma) as reflected in the megafossil plant record. - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 238: 321-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.03.031

  • Kovar-Eder, J., Kvaček, Z., Ströbitzer-Hermann, M. (2004): The Miocene flora of Parschlug (Styria, Austria) - Revision and synthesis. - Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 105A: 45-159.

  • Kowarik, I., Säumel, I. (2007): Biological flora of central Europe: Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle. - Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 8(4): 207-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2007.03.002

  • Kunzmann, L., Kvaček, Z., Mai, D. H., Walther, H. (2009): The genus Taxodium (Cupressaceae) in the Palaeogene and Neogene of Central Europe. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 153(1): 153-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2008.08.003

  • Kvaček, Z. (2004): Early Miocene records of Craigia (Malvaceae s.l.) in the Most Basin, North Bohemia - whole plant approach. - Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 49: 161-171.

  • Kvaček, Z. (2007): Do extant nearest relatives of thermophile European Tertiary elements reliably reflect climatic signal? - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 253: 32-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.03.032

  • Kvaček, Z. (2008): Whole-plant reconstructions in fossil angiosperm research. - International Journal of Plant Sciences, 169(7): 918-927. https://doi.org/10.1086/589694

  • Kvaček, Z., Dvořák, Z., Mach, K., Sakala, J. (2004): Třetihorní rostliny severočeské hnědouhelné pánve [Tertiary Plants from North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin]. - Severočeské doly, a. s., Chomutova; Granit, s. r. o., Praha, 158 pp. (in Czech)

  • Kvaček, Z., Hably, L. (2014): The Whole Plant Reconstruction of Banisteriaecarpum giganteum and Byttneriophyllum tiliifolium - A Preliminary Report. - Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis, Geologica et Paleobiologica, 48(1-2): 1-10.

  • Kvaček, Z., Teodoridis, V., Gregor, H.-J. (2008): The Pliocene leaf flora of Auenheim, Northern Alsace (France). - Documenta naturae, 155(10), 1-108.

  • Łańcucka-Środoniowa, M. (1966): Tortonian flora from the “Gdów Bay” in the South of Poland. - Acta Palaebotanica, 7(1): 1-135.

  • Lanini, B. (2001): Il Messiniano evaporitico e post-evaporitico in alcune sezioni italiane e spagnole: il contributo palinologico alla ricostruzione paleovegetazionale e paleoclimatica [The evaporitic and post-evaporitic Messinian in some Italian and Spanish sections: palynological contribution to the palaeovegetational and palaoclimatic reconstruction]; MSc. thesis. - MS, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy, 102 pp. (in Italian) (copy in library of the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence)

  • Lu, Y., Ran, J. H., Guo, D. M., Yang, Z. Y., Wang, X. Q. (2014): Phylogeny and divergence times of gymnosperms inferred from single-copy nuclear genes. - PLoS ONE, 9(9): e107679. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107679

  • Macaluso, L., Martinetto, E., Vigna, B., Bertini, A., Cilia, A., Teodoridis, V., Kvaček, Z. (2018): Palaeofloral and stratigraphic context of a new fossil forest from the Pliocene of NW Italy. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 248: 15-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2017.08.005

  • Magri, D., Di Rita, F., Aranbarri, J., Fletcher, W., González- Sampériz, P. (2017): Quaternary disappearance of tree taxa from Southern Europe: Timing and trends. - Quaternary Science Reviews, 163: 23-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.02.014

  • Mai, D. H. (1994): Fossile Koniferenreste in der meridionalen Zone Europas. - Feddes Repertorium, 105(3-4): 207-227. https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.19941050315

  • Manchester, S. R., Calvillo-Canadell, L., Cevallos-Ferriz, S. R. (2014): Assembling extinct plants from their isolated parts. - Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 66(1): 53-63. https://doi.org/10.18268/BSGM2014v66n1a5

  • Manchester, S. R., Chen, Z. D., Lu, A. M., Uemura, K. (2009): Eastern Asian endemic seed plant genera and their paleogeographic history throughout the Northern Hemisphere. - Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 47(1): 1-42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2009.00001.x

  • Martinetto, E. (1995): Significato cronologico e paleoambientale dei macrofossili vegetali nell’inquadramento stratigrafico del Villafranchiano di alcuni settori del Piemonte (Italia NW) [Chronological and paleoenvironmental meaning of plant macrofossils in the stratigraphical framing of the “Villafranchian” unit in some districts of the Piemonte region (NW Italy)]; Tesi di Dottorato [PhD thesis]. - Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy, 149 pp. (in Italian) (printed in 100 copies, one copy in the library of the Earth Sciences Department of the Turin University)

  • Martinetto, E. (2003): Leaves of terrestrial plants from the shallow marine and transitional Pliocene deposits of Asti (Piedmont, NW Italy). - Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 42: 11-75.

  • Martinetto, E. (2015): Monographing the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene carpofloras of Italy: methodological challenges and current progress. - Palaeontographica, Abteilung B, 293: 57-99. https://doi.org/10.1127/palb/293/2015/57

  • Martinetto, E., Bertini, A., Basilici, G., Baldanza, A., Bizzarri, R., Cherin, M., Gentili, S., Pontini, M. R. (2014): The plant record of the Dunarobba and Pietrafitta sites in the Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental context of Central Italy. - Alpine and Mediterranean Quaternary, 27(1): 29-72.

  • Martinetto, E., Mai D. H. (1996): Macrofossili vegetali [Plant macrofossils]. - In: Carraro, F. (ed.), Revisione del Villafranchiano nell’area-tipo di Villafranca d’Asti [Revision of the Villafranchian in the type-area of Villafranca d’Asti]. - Il Quaternario, 9: 73-79. (in Italian).

  • Martinetto, E., Monegato, G., Irace, A., Vaiani, S. C., Vassio, E. (2015): Pliocene and Early Pleistocene carpological records of terrestrial plants from the southern border of the Po Plain (northern Italy). - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 218: 148-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2014.10.007

  • Martinetto, E., Rista, C., Tarabra, E. (2000): Classificazione e ordinamento museologico di foglie di Angiosperme messiniane dell’Albese [Classification and museum storage of Messinian angiosperm leaves from the Albese district]. - Alba Pompeia, n.s., 21(1): 3-30.

  • Martinetto, E., Scardia, G., Varrone, D. (2007a): Magnetobiostratigraphy of the Stura di Lanzo Fossil Forest succession (Piedmont, Italy). - Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 113(1): 109-125.

  • Martinetto, E., Tema, E., Irace, A., Violanti, D., Ciuto, M., Zanella, E. (2018): High-diversity European palaeoflora favoured by early Pliocene warmth: New chronological constraints from the Ca’ Viettone section, NW Italy. - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 496: 248-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.01.042

  • Martinetto, E., Uhl, D., Tarabra, E. (2007b): Leaf physiognomic indications for a moist warm-temperate climate in NW Italy during the Messinian (Late Miocene). - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 253: 41-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.03.033

  • Martinetto, E., Vassio, E. (2010): Reconstructing “Plant Community Scenarios” by means of palaeocarpological data from the CENOFITA database, with an example from the Ca’ Viettone site (Pliocene, Northern Italy). - Quaternary International, 225: 25-36.

  • Massalongo, A., Scarabelli, G. F. (1859): Studii sulla flora fossile e geologia stratigrafica del Senigalliese [Studies on fossil flora and stratigraphy of the Senigallia area]. - Premiata Litografia Penuti, Imola, 506 pp. (in Italian)

  • McNeill, J., Barrie, F. R., Buck, W. R., Demoulin, V., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D. L., Herendeen, P. S., Knapp, S., Marhold, K., Prado, J., Prud’homme van Reine,W. F., Smith, G. F.,Wiersema, J. H., Turland, N. J. (eds) (2012): International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. - Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, 240 pp.

  • Miller, J. S., Funk, V. A., Wagner, W. L., Barrie, F., Hoch, P. C., Herendeen, P. (2011): Outcomes of the 2011 botanical nomenclature section at the XVIII International Botanical Congress. - PhytoKeys, 5: 1-3. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.5.1850

  • Monegatti, P., Canali, G., Bertoldi, R., Albianelli, A. (2002): The classical Late Piacenzian Monte Falcone-Rio Crevalese section (Northern Italy): palynological evidence and biomagnetostratigraphic constraints for climatic cyclicity and local mollusc extinctions. - Geobios, Mémoire spécial, 24: 219-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(02)00061-X

  • Monesi, E., Mattoni, G., Scardia, G., Felletti, F., Frigerio, C., Bona, F., Tremolada, F., Francou, C., Sala, B., Raineri, G. (2016): Magnetostratigraphy of the Pleistocene marine-continental transition in the Arda River section (northern Italy): insights on the opening of the Galerian mammal migration pathway during the Late Matuyama climate revolution. - Quaternary Research, 86(2): 220-231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2016.07.006

  • Paolucci, L. (1896): Nuovi materiali e ricerche critiche sulle piante fossili terziarie dei gessi di Ancona [New materials and critical researches on Tertiary fossil plants of the Ancona gypsum beds]. - A. Gustavo Morelli, Ancona, 158 pp. (in Italian)

  • Peola, P. (1899): Florula messiniana di Monte Castello d’Alessandria [Messinian florula of Monte Castello d’Alessandria]. - Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana, 18: 44-51.

  • Pini, R., Castellano, L., Ravazzi, C., Raineri, L., Bona, F., Sala, B. (2014): First combined findings of in-situ fossil wood and pollen of Parrotia persica and cf. Eucommia sp. in late Early Pleistocene deposits from the northern Apennine fringe (N Italy). - In: Abstract volume 9th EPPC, Padua, pp. 211-212.

  • Principi, P. (1926): Flora sarmaziana di Polenta in provincia di Forlì [Sarmatian flora of Polenta in the province of Forlì]. - Atti della Società Ligure di Scienze e Lettere, nuova serie, 5(3): 1-72. (in Italian)

  • Ravazzi, C. (2003): Gli antichi bacini lacustri e i fossili di Leffe, Ranica e Pianico-Sèllere (Prealpi Lombarde) [The ancient lacustrine basins and the fossils of Leffe, Ranica and Pianico-Sèllere (Lombardian Prealps)]. - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali, Milano, 175 pp.

  • Rio, D., Channell, J. E. T., Bertoldi, R., Poli, M. S., Vergerio, P. P., Raffi, I., Sprovieri, R., Thunell, R. C. (1997): Pliocene sapropels in Northern Adriatic area: chronology and paleoenvironmental significance. - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 135(1-49): 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(97)00027-8

  • Sachse, M. (2001): Oleaceous laurophyllous leaf fossils and pollen from the European Tertiary. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 115: 213-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-6667(01)00070-7

  • Sakala, J. (2004): The ‘Whole-Plant’ concept in palaeobotany with examples from the Tertiary of northwestern Bohemia, Czech Republic with particular reference to fossil wood; Ph.D. Thesis. - MS, Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic and Laboratoire de Paléobotanique et Paléoécologie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 94 pp. (copy available on-line: https://web.natur.cuni.cz/ugp/main/ staff/sakala/01-PhD_Thesis/sakala-these-finale-full.pdf)

  • Sordelli, F. (1896): Studi sulla vegetazione di Lombardia durante i tempi geologici [Studies on vegetation of Lombardy across geological time]. -Tipografia L. F. Cogliati, Milano, 300 pp.

  • Stuchlik, L. (ed.) (2001): Atlas of pollen and spores of the Polish Neogene (Vol. 1). - W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Acadamy of Sciences, Kraków, 158 pp. Stull, G. W., de Stefano, R. D., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S. (2015): Resolving basal lamiid phylogeny and the circumscription of Icacinaceae with a plastome-scale data set. - American Journal of Botany, 102(11); 1794-1813. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1500298

  • Su, T., Jacques, F. M., Ma, H. J., Zhou, Z. K. (2013): Fossil fruits of Ailanthus confucii from the upper Miocene of Wenshan, Yunnan Province, southwestern China. - Palaeoworld, 22(3); 153-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palwor.2013.07.002

  • Teodoridis, V., Bruch, A. A., Vassio, E., Martinetto, E., Kvaček, Z., Stuchlik, L. (2017a): Plio-Pleistocene floras of the Vildštejn Formation in the Cheb Basin, Czech Republic- a review and a new paleoenvironmental evaluation.- Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 467: 166-190.

  • Teodoridis, V., Gregor, H. J. (2001): A new Pliocene leaf flora from the Meleto Clay in the opencast mine Santa Barbara, Upper Valdarno (Central Tuscany, Italy). - Flora Tertiaria Mediterranea, 5(11): 1-28.

  • Teodoridis, V., Kvaček, Z., Agostini, S., Martinetto, E., Rossi, M. A., Cavallo, O. (2015a): Feather palm foliage from the Messinian of Italy (Capo di Fiume, Palena and Pollenzo near Alba) within the framework of northern Mediterranean late Miocene flora. - Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Historia Naturalis, 71(3-4): 301-314.

  • Teodoridis, V., Kvaček, Z., Sami, M. (2017b): Revision of the Messinian flora of Polenta (Romagna Apennines, Northern Italy). - Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 283: 221-237. https://doi.org/10.1127/njgpa/2017/0638

  • Teodoridis, V., Kvaček, Z., Sami, M., Utescher, T., Martinetto, E. (2015b): Palaeoenvironmental analysis of the Messinian macrofossil floras of Tossignano and Monte Tondo (Vena del Gesso basin, Romagna Apennines, northern Italy). - Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Historia Naturalis, 71(3-4): 249-292.

  • Teodoridis, V., Sakala, J. (2008): Early Miocene conifer macrofossils from the Most Basin (Czech Republic). - Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 250(3): 287-312. https://doi.org/10.1127/0077-7749/2008/0250-0287

  • Thomé, O. W. (1885): Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. - Zezschwitz, Gera, 699 pp.

  • Tralau, H. (1963): Asiatic Dicotyledonous affinities in the Cainozoic flora of Europe. - Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, Fjärde Serie, 9(3): 1-84.

  • Trevisan, L. (1967): Pollini fossili del Miocene superiore nei Tripoli del Gabbro (Toscana) [Fossil pollen grains from the upper Miocene in the “Tripoli” of Gabbro (Tuscany)]. - Palaeontographia Italica, 62: 1-73 (n. ser. 32). (in Italian)

  • Valleri, G., Bertoldi, R., Bertini, A. (1990): Studio delle associazioni a foraminiferi e a pollini del Pliocene di Ponte a Elsa (Valdarno Inferiore, Toscana) [Studies on the Pliocene foraminifer and pollen assemblages of Ponte a Elsa (Lower Valdarno, Tuscany)]. - Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 29(3): 321-333. (in Italian)

  • Vassio, E., Martinetto, E., Dolezych, M., Van der Burgh, J. (2008): Wood anatomy of the Glyptostrobus europaeus “whole-plant” from a Pliocene fossil forest of Italy. - Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 151(3): 81-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2008.02.006

  • Vieira, M., Pound, M. J., Pereira, D. I. (2018): The late Pliocene palaeoenvironments and palaeoclimates of the western Iberian Atlantic margin from the Rio Maior flora. - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 495: 245-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.01.018

  • Viviani, V. (1833): Sur les restes de plantes fossiles trouvés dans les gypses tertiaires de Stradella prés de Pavie. - Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, 1(1) : 129-134.

  • Ying, T. S., Zhang, Y. L., Boufford, D. E. (1993): The endemic genera of seed plants of China. - Science Press, Beijing, 824 pp.

  • Zhang, J. B., Li, R. Q., Xiang, X. G., Manchester, S. R., Lin, L., Wang, W., Wen, J., Chen, Z. D. (2013): Integrated fossil and molecular data reveal the biogeographic diversification of the eastern Asian - eastern North American disjunct hickory genus (Carya Nutt.). - PLoS ONE, 8(7): e70449. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070449

  • Zheng, Z. (1990): Végétations et climats néogènes des Alpes maritimes franco-italiennes d’apres les données de l’analyse palynologique. - Paléobiologie Continentale, 17 : 217-244.

  • Zhilin, S. G. (1974): Eucommiaceae. - In : Takhtajan [= Takhtadzhyan], A. (ed.), Iskopaemye tsvetkovye rasteniya SSSR [Magnoliophyta Fossilia USSR], vol. 1 : Magnoliaceae-Eucommiaceae. Nauka, Leningrad, pp. 153-154. (in Russian)

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search