Potential Effect of the Law of Belligerent Occupation on the Applicability of Investment Treaties in Occupied Territories

Open access

Abstract

This article focuses on the applicability of bilateral investment treaties on the conduct of the occupying power towards foreign investments situated in the occupied territory. It examines the content of the obligation to respect the laws in force in the occupied territory as prescribed by Art. 43 of the Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. Some authors proposed an idea that this obligation is a gateway provision for the applicability of international treaties which are in force in the occupied territory on the conduct of the occupier. They refer to the case-law dealing with the applicability of human rights treaties in occupied territories. However, after the interpretation of this provision and inquiry into the case-law, this paper reaches the con­clusion that the obligation to respect the laws in force does not have this effect. Instead, it deals with the legislative powers of the occupying power.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Benvenisti Eyal. The International Law Of Occupation. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2012.Bothe Michael. Administration Of Occupied Territory. In Clapham Andrew And Others (Eds). The 1949 Geneva Conventions: A Commentary. Oxford: Oxford Univer­sity Press 2015.

  • Dinstein Yoram. The International Law Of Belligerent Occupation. New York: Cam­bridge University Press 2009.

  • Dörr Oliver Schmalenbach Kirsten (Eds). Vienna Convention On The Law Of Trea­ties. Berlin: Springer 2012.

  • Douglas Zachary. Property Investment And The Scope Of Investment Protection Obli­gations. In Douglas Zachary And Others (Eds). The Foundations Of International Investment Law: Bringing Theory Into Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2014.

  • Gazzini Tarcisio. Interpretation Of International Investment Treaties. Portland: Hart Publishing 2016.

  • Giacca Gilles. Economic Social And Cultural Rights In Occupied Territories. In Clapham Andrew And Others (Eds). The 1949 Geneva Conventions: A Commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2015.

  • Grant Thomas. Aggression Against Ukraine. Territory Responsibility And International Law. New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2015.

  • Hornby A. S. Oxford Advanced Learner´S Dictionary (7th Ed.). Oxford: Oxford Univer­sity Press 2005.

  • Schill Stephan W. The Multilateralization Of International Investment Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2009.

  • Schreurer Christoph. The Protection Of Investments In Armed Conflicts. In Bae­tens Freya (Ed). Investment Law Within International Law. Integrationist Perspec­tives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2013.

  • Schwarzenberger Georg. International Law As Applied By International Courts And Tribunals Volume Ii. London: Sweet & Maxwell 1969.

  • Waibel Michael. International Investment Law And Treaty Interpretation. In Hof­mann Rainer Tams Christian J. (Eds). International Investment Law And Gen­eral International Law : From Clinical Isolation To Systemic Integration? Baden-Baden: Nomos 2011.

  • Costelloe Daniel. Treaty Succession In Annexed Territory. International & Compara­tive Law Quaterly 2016 Vol. 65 No. 2 Pp. 343-378.

  • Dumberry Patrick. Requiem For Crimea: Why Tribunals Should Have Declined Juris­diction Over The Claims Of Ukraininan Investors Against Russian Under The Ukraine-Russia Bit.

  • Journal Of International Dispute Settlement 2018 Vol. 9 Pp. 506-533.

  • Happ Richard Wuschka Sebastian. Horror Vacui: Or Why Investment Treaties Should Apply To Illegally Annexed Territories. Journal Of International Arbitration 2016 Vol. 33 Pp. 245-268.

  • Mayorga Ofilio. Occupants Beware Of Bits: Applicability Of Investment Treaties To Occupied Territories. Palestine Yearbook Of International Law 2016 Vol. 19 No. 1 Pp. 136-176.

  • Repousis Odysseas G. Why Russian Investment Treaties Could Apply To Crimea And What Would This Mean For The Ongoing Russo-Ukrainian Territorial Conflict. Arbitra­tion International 2016 Vol. 32 No. 3 P. 459-481.

  • Roberts Adam. Transformative Military Occupation: Applying The Laws Of War And Human Rights. American Journal Of International Law 2017 Vol. 100 No. 3 Pp. 580-622.

  • Sassòli Marco. Legislation And Maintenance Of Public Order And Civil Life By Occupy­ing Powers. The European Journal Of International Law 2005 Vol. 16 No. 4 Pp. 661-694.

  • Schreurer Christoph. War And Peace In International Investment Law. Transnational Dispute Management 2017 Vol. 15 No. 1. Available At Accessed: 05.08.2018.

  • Schwenk Edmund H. Legislative Power Of The Military Occupant Under Article 43 Hague Regulations. Yale Law Journal 1945 Vol. 54 Pp. 393-416.

  • Stejskal Petr. War: Foreign Investments In Danger Can International Humanitarian Law Or Full Protection And Security Clause Always Save It? Czech Yearbook Of Public & Private International Law 2017 Vol. 8 Pp. 529-549.

  • Tadlock Robert D. Occupation Law And Foreign Investment In Iraq: How An Out­dated Doctrine Has Become An Obstacle To Occupied Populations. University Of San Francisco Law Review 2005 Vol. 39 No. 1 Pp. 227-260.

  • Benvenisti Eyal. Occupation Belligerent. [Online] . The Max Planck Encyclopedia Of Public International Law 2009. Available At: Accessed: 11.11.2017.Burke Naomi. A Change In Perspective: Looking At Occupation Through The Lens Of The Law Of Treaties. N. Y.U.J. Int’l L. & Pol. 2008 Vol. 41 No. 1 Pp. 103-128.

  • Caplan Lee. Ukraine Crisis Raises Questions For Foreign Investors. [Online]. Available At:< Https://Www.Law360.Com/Articles/575041/Ukraine-Crisis-Raises-Questions-For-Foreign-Investors> Accessed: 29.05.2017.

  • Peterson Luce E. Russia Held Liable In Confidential Award For Expropriation Of Hotels Apartments And Other Crimean Real Estate (..). [Online]. Available At: Accessed: 24.05.2018.

  • Vaccaro-Incisa Malteo G. Crimea Investment Disputes: Are Jurisdictional Hurdles Being Overcome Too Easily? [Online] Available At: Accessed: 01.06.2018.

Search
Journal information
Target audience: researchers and experts in the field of International law and EU Law
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 201 201 3
PDF Downloads 162 162 9