This study focuses on the progressive vs. non-progressive alternation to revisit the debate on the ENL-ESL-EFL continuum (i.e. whether native (ENL) and nonnative (ESL/EFL) Englishes are dichotomous types of English or form a gradient continuum). While progressive marking is traditionally studied independently of its unmarked counterpart, we examine (i) how the grammatical contexts of both constructions systematically affect speakers’ constructional choices in ENL (American, British), ESL (Indian, Nigerian and Singaporean) and EFL (Finnish, French and Polish learner Englishes) and (ii) what light speakers’ varying constructional choices bring to the continuum debate. Methodologically, we use a clustering technique to group together individual varieties of English (i.e. to identify similarities and differences between those varieties) based on linguistic contextual features such as AKTIONSART, ANIMACY, SEMANTIC DOMAIN (of aspect-bearing lexical verb), TENSE, MODALITY and VOICE to assess the validity of the ENL-ESL-EFL classification for our data. Then, we conduct a logistic regression analysis (based on lemmas observed in both progressive and non-progressive constructions) to explore how grammatical contexts influence speakers’ constructional choices differently across English types. While, overall, our cluster analysis supports the ENL-ESL-EFL classification as a useful theoretical framework to explore cross-variety variation, the regression shows that, when we start digging into the specific linguistic contexts of (non-)progressive constructions, this classification does not systematically transpire in the data in a uniform manner. Ultimately, by including more than one statistical technique into their exploration of the continuum, scholars could avoid potential methodological biases.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Aarts Bas Joanne Close Geoffrey Leech and Sean Wallis (eds.). 2013. The verb phrase in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Biewer Carolin. 2011. Modal auxiliaries in second language varieties of English: A learner’s perspective. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.) 7–33.
Bongartz Christiane M. and Sarah Buschfeld. 2011. English in Cyprus: Second language variety or learner English? In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.) 35–54.
Brinton Laurel J. 1988. The development of English aspectual systems: Aspectualizers and post-verbal particles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Collins Peter. 2008. The progressive aspect in World Englishes: A corpus-based study. Australian Journal of Linguistics 28 (2): 225–249.
Crawley Michael J. 2007. The R book. Chichester: Wiley.
Deshors Sandra C. 2014. A case for a unified treatment of EFL and ESL: A multifactorial approach. English World-Wide 35 (3): 277–305.
Deshors Sandra. C. 2017. Zooming in on verbs in the progressive: A collostructional and correspondence analysis. Journal of English Linguistics 45 (3): 260–290.
Deshors Sandra C. Sandra Götz and Samantha Laporte. 2016. Linguistic innovations in EFL and ESL: Rethinking the linguistic creativity of non-native English speakers. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research 2 (2): 131–150.
Divjak Dagmar and Stefan Th. Gries. 2006. Ways of trying in Russian: Clustering behavioral profiles. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 2 (1): 23–60.
Divjak Dagmar S. and Stefan Th. Gries. 2009. Corpus-based cognitive semantics: A contrastive study of phrasal verbs in English and Russian. In K. Dziwirek and B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (eds.). Studies in cognitive corpus linguistics 273–296. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Dowty David R. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar: The semantics of verbs and times in generative semantics and in Montague's PTQ. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Du Bois John W. Wallace L. Chafe Charles Meyer Sandra A. Thompson Robert Englebretson and Nii Martey. 2000–2005. Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English Parts 1–4. Philadelphia: Linguistic Data Consortium.
Edwards Alison. 2014. The progressive aspect in the Netherlands and the ESL/EFL continuum. World Englishes 33 (2): 173–194.
Edwards Alison. 2016. English in the Netherlands: Functions forms and attitudes. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Edwards Alison and Samantha Laporte. 2015. Outer and Expanding Circle Englishes: The competing roles of norm orientation and proficiency levels. English World-Wide 36 (2): 135–169.
Gilquin Gaëtanelle. 2015. At the interface of contact linguistics and second language acquisition research: New Englishes and Learner Englishes compared. English World-Wide 36 (1): 91–124.
Gilquin Gaëtanelle Sylvie De Cock and Sylviane Granger (eds.). 2010. The Louvain International Database of Spoken English Interlanguage: Handbook and CD-ROM. Louvain-la-Neuve: Presses universitaires de Louvain.
Gilquin Gaëtanelle and Sylviane Granger. 2011. From EFL to ESL: Evidence from the International Corpus of Learner English. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.) 55–78.
Götz Sandra and Marco Schilk. 2011. Formulaic sequences in spoken ENL ESL and EFL: Focus on British English Indian English and learner English of advanced German learners. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.) 79–100.
Granger Sylviane Estelle Dagneaux Fanny Meunier and Magali Paquot (eds.). 2009. The International Corpus of Learner English. Version 2. Handbook and CD-Rom. Louvain-la-Neuve: Presses Universitaires de Louvain.
Greenbaum Sydney. 1991. The development of the International Corpus of English. In K. Aijmer B. Altenberg and J. Svartvik (eds.). English corpus linguistics: Studies in honour of Jan Svartvik 83–91. London: Longman.
Gries Stefan Th. 2009. Statistics for linguists with R: A practical introduction. Berlin New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Gries Stefan Th. and Sandra C. Deshors. 2015. EFL and/vs. ESL? A multi-level regression modeling perspective on bridging the paradigm gap. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research 1 (1): 130–159.
Gut Ulrike and Robert Fuchs. 2013. Progressive aspect in Nigerian English. Journal of English Linguistics 41 (3): 243–267.
Harrell Frank E. 2001. Regression modeling strategies: With applications to linear models logistic regression and survival analysis. New York: Springer.
Hundt Marianne. 2004. Animacy agency and the spread of the progressive in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century English. English Language and Linguistics 8 (1): 47–69.
Hundt Marianne and Joybrato Mukherjee. 2011. Introduction: Bridging a paradigm gap. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.) 1–5.
Hundt Marianne and Katrin Vogel. 2011. Overuse of the progressive in ESL and learner Englishes: Fact or fiction? In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.) 145–165.
Kachru Braj B. 1985. Standards codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk and H.G. Widdowson (eds.). English in the world. Teaching and learning the language and literature 11–30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kranich Svenja. 2010. The progressive in Modern English: A corpus-based study of grammaticalization and related changes. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Laitinen Mikko. (Forthcoming). Placing ELF among the varieties of English: Some observation from typological profiling. In S. C. Deshors (ed.). Modeling World Englishes: Assessing the interplay of emancipation and globalization of ESL varieties. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Laitinen Mikko and Magnus Levin. 2016. On the globalization of English: Observations of subjective progressives in present-day Englishes. In E. Seoane and C. Suárez-Gómez (eds.). World Englishes: New theoretical and methodological considerations 229–252. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Leech Geoffrey Marianne Hundt Christian Mair and Nicholas Smith. 2009. Change in contemporary English: A grammatical study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mair Christian. 2013. The World System of Englishes: Accounting for the transnational importance of mobile and mediated vernaculars. English World-Wide 34(3): 253–278.
Meriläinen Lea and Heli Paulasto. 2017. Embedded inversion as an angloversal: Evidence from Inner Outer and Expanding Circle Englishes. In M. Filppula J. Klemola and D. Sharma (eds.). The Oxford handbook of World Englishes 676–696. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Meriläinen Lea Heli Paulasto and Paula Rautionaho. 2017. Extended uses of the progressive form in Inner Outer and Expanding Circle Englishes. In M. Filppula J. Klemola A. Mauranen and S. Vetchinnikova (eds.). Changing English: Global and local perspectives 191–216. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Mesthrie Rajend and Rakesh M. Bhatt. 2008. World Englishes: The study of new linguistic varieties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mukherjee Joybrato and Marianne Hundt (eds.). 2011. Exploring second-language varieties of English and learner Englishes: Bridging the paradigm gap. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Rautionaho Paula. 2014. Variation in the progressive: A corpus-based study into World Englishes. Tampere: Tampere University Press.
Rautionaho Paula and Sandra C. Deshors. (Forthcoming.) Progressive or not progressive?: Modeling the constructional choices of EFL and ESL writers. To appear in International Journal of Learner Corpus Research a special issue “Tense and aspect in learner language: Issues and advances in the use of language corpora”.
Salles Bernal Soluna. 2015. Synchronic analysis of the progressive aspect in three varieties of Asian Englishes. Miscelánea: A Journal of English and American Studies 51: 87–107.
Schneider Edgar. 2007. Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schneider Gerold and Marianne Hundt. 2012. “Off with their heads”: Profiling TAM in ICE corpora. In M. Hundt and U. Gut (eds.). Mapping unity and diversity World-Wide: Corpus-based studies of New Englishes 1–34. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Sharma Devyani. 2009. Typological diversity in New Englishes. English World-Wide 30 (2): 170–195.
Smitterberg Erik. 2005. The progressive in 19th-century English: A process of integration. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Strang Barbara M.H. 1982. Some aspects of the history of the be + ing construction. In J. Anderson (ed.). Language form and linguistic variation: Papers dedicated to Angus McIntosh 427–474. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Suzuki Ryota and Hidetoshi Shimodaira. 2011. Hierarchical clustering with Pvalues via multiscale bootstrap resampling. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/pvclust/pvclust.pdf > (accessed June 27 2017).
Szmrecsanyi Benedikt and Bernd Kortmann. 2011. Typological profiling: Learner Englishes versus indigenized L2 varieties of English. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.) 167–187.
Van Rooy Bertus. 2006. The extension of the progressive aspect in Black South African English. World Englishes 25 (1): 37–64.
Van Rooy Bertus. 2010. Social and linguistic perspectives on variability in World Englishes. World Englishes 29 (1): 3–20.
Van Rooy Bertus. 2011. A principled distinction between error and conventionalized innovation in African Englishes. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.) 189–207.
Van Rooy Bertus 2014. Progressive aspect and stative verbs in Outer Circle varieties. World Englishes 33 (2): 157–172.
Van Rooy Bertus and Caroline Piotrowska. 2015. The development of an extended time period meaning of the progressive in Black South African English. In P. Collins (ed.). Grammatical change in English world-wide 465–483. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Vendler Zeno. 1957. Verbs and times. The Philosophical Review 66(2): 143–160.
Williams Jessica. 1987. Non-native varieties of English: A special case of language acquisition. English World-Wide 8(2): 161–199.