Purpose. To compare the effects of aquatic and land plyometric training on the vertical jump (VJ) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in soccer players. Methods. Twenty-four male soccer players aged 16-18 years (16.53 ± 0.5 years) were randomly divided into three groups: aquatic plyometric training (APT) (n = 8; age: 16.4 ± 0.4 years; body mass: 68.3 ± 7.54 kg; height: 179.75 ± 8.13 cm); land plyometric training (LPT) (n = 8; age: 16.5 ± 0.5 years; body mass: 68.2 ± 7.8 kg; height: 177.0 ± 7.4 cm); and control group (n = 8; age: 16.7 ± 0.6 years; body mass: 61.2 ± 6.5 kg; height: 171.43 ± 5.75 cm), not performing any jump program. An identical training program was applied for 6 weeks, totalling 944 jumps. The VJ was evaluated on a leap jump platform and the Visual Analogue Scale measured the change in DOMS perception. Results. There was a significant increase in the VJ height in both experimental groups (LPT and APT) (p < 0.05). A significant reduction in DOMS perception was verified for the APT group in comparison with the LPT group (p < 0.05) between the first and last week of training. The foot contact time significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the APT group from pre- to posttest. Significant improvements (p < 0.05) were observed in the flight time and jump speed from pre- to post-test in both LPT and APT groups. Conclusions. APT can increase the VJ height and reduce DOMS perception in soccer players.
5. Campillo RR, Pedreros MV, Olguin CH, Salazar CM, Alvarez C, Nakamura FY, et al. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2015;34(8): 687-693; doi:
10. Chatzinikolaou A, Fatouros IG, Gourgoulis V, Avloniti A, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, et al. Time course of changes in performance and inflammatory responses after acute plyometric exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2010; 24(5):1389-1398; doi:
13. Triplett NT, Colado JC, Benavent J, Alakhdar Y, Madera J, Gonzalez LM, et al. Concentric and impact forces of single-leg jumps in an aquatic environment versus on land. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(9):1790- 1796; doi:
17. Fabricius DL. Comparison of aquatic- and land-based plyometric training on power, speed and agility in adolescent rugby union players. Thesis, Stellenbosch University; 2011. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/17811.
18. Lavanant AJ, Cruz JRA, Blanco FP, Romero CM, Rosell DR, Garcia JCF. The effects of aquatic plyometric training on repeated jumps, drop jumps and muscle damage. Int J Sports Med. 2015 [Epub ahead of print]; doi:
20. Shiran MY, Kordi MR, Ziaee V, Ravasi A, Mansournia MA. The effect of aquatic and land plyometric training on physical performance and muscular enzymes in male wrestlers. Res J Biol Sci. 2008;3(5):457-461.
21. Toumi H, Best TM, Martin A, F’Guyer S, Poumarat G. Effects of eccentric phase velocity of plyometric training on the vertical jump. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25(5): 391-398; doi:
26. Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Castagna C, Martino F, Fiorini S, Wisloff U. Effect of plyometric training on sand versus grass on muscle soreness, jumping and sprinting ability in soccer players. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(1): 42-46; doi:
28. Miller M, Ploeg AH, Dibbet TJ, Holcomb WR, Berry, DC, O’Donoghue J. The effects of high volume aquatic plyometric training on vertical jump, muscle power, and torque. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(1):1; doi:
30. Stojanović E, Ristić V, McMaster DT, Milanović Z. Effect of plyometric training on vertical jump performance in female athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2017;47(5):975-986; doi:
36. Wertheimer V, Jukic I. Aquatic training: an alternative or a complement to the land-based training. Hrvat Šports Vjesn. 2014;28(2):57-66.
37. Miller MG, Cheatham CC, Porter AR, Ricard MD, Hennigar D, Berry DC. Chest- and waist-deep aquatic plyometric training and average force, power, and vertical- jump performance. Int J Aquat Res Educ. 2007; 1(2):145-155; doi: