Characteristics of anteroposterior curvatures of the spine in soccer and futsal players

Open access


Purpose. The aim of the study was to determine differences in anteroposterior spine curvatures between futsal players, soccer players, and non-training students. The results may contribute to the development of present-day knowledge of posturometry, and its implementation in training can help reduce the risk of body posture disorders in athletes. Methods. The examined group consisted of 48 athletes and 38 non-training college students. Body posture parameters were measured with the use of Posturometr-S. The normality of distribution was checked with the Shapiro-Wilk test, and the differences between the groups were measured with ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. The analysis of angle values revealed the widest and most similar measurements in the group of futsal players and soccer players. The analysis of variance proved statistically significant differences between the soccer players and futsal players (p = 0.003). The difference between the soccer players and non-training students was statistically significant. The highest γ angular value was measured in non-training students, followed by futsal players and soccer players. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the non-training students and futsal players, as well as non-training students and soccer players (p < 0.001). Conclusions. A complex assessment of athletes’ body posture is crucial in injury prevention. Training overloads may often lead to disorders of the organ of locomotion and affect the correct body posture in athletes. This, in turn, may result in pains and injuries.

1. Duarte R, Batalha N, Folgado H, Sampaio J. Effects of exercise duration and number of players in heart rate responses and technical skills during futsal small-sided games. Op Sports Sci J. 2009;2(1):37-41; doi:

2. Zernicke R, MacKay C, Lorincz C. Mechanisms of bone remodeling during weight-bearing exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006;31(6):655-660; doi:

3. Burdukiewicz A, Pietraszewska J, Stachoń A, Chromik K, Goliński D. The anthropometric characteristics of futsal players compared with professional soccer players. Hum Mov. 2014;15(2):93-99; doi:

4. Wolański P, Muracki J, Goliński D, Nosal J, Bakońska- Pacoń E, Murawska-Ciałowicz E. The intensity and energy expenditure of exertions, restitution speed, and rate of perceived exertion after tournament matches in Polish futsal players. Hum Mov. 2017;18(1):58-66; doi:

5. Castagna C, D’Ottavio S, Granda Vera J, Barbero Alvarez JC. Match demands of professional futsal: a case study. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12(4):490-494; doi:

6. Hoff J. Training and testing physical capacities for elite soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2005;23(6):573-582; doi:

7. Bangsbo J. The physiology of soccer - with special reference to intense intermittent exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 1994;619 (Suppl.):1-155.

8. Barbero-Alvarez JC, Soto VM, Barbero-Alvarez V, Granda- Vera J. Match analysis and heart rate of futsal players during competition. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(1):63-73; doi:

9. Michalczyk M, Kłapcińska B, Poprzęcki S, Jagosz S, Sadowska-Krępa E, Kimas E, et al. Assessment of aerobic capacity and speed of sprint players of the 1st and 4th football leagues [in Polish]. Wych Fiz Sport. 2010;54(1):13-19.

10. Souza RP, Alves JMVM, Gorla JI, Novaes G, Cabral SIC, Neves EB, et al. Characterization of the intensity of effort of blind athletes from the Brazilian Football 5-ASide national team. J Health Biol Sci. 2016;4(4):218-226; doi:

11. Cometti G. Physical preparation in football [in French]. Paris: Chiron; 2002.

12. Van Hespen A, Stege JP, Stubbe JH. Soccer and futsal injuries in the Netherlands. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(4): 330; doi:

13. Ribeiro RN, Costa LOP. Epidemiologic analysis of injuries during the 15th Brazilian Indoor Soccer (Futsal) Sub20 Team Selection Championship. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2006;12(1):1e-4e; doi:

14. Pahor S, Toppenberg R. An investigation of neural tissue involvement in ankle inversion sprains. Man Ther. 1996;1(4):192-197; doi:

15. Hawrylak A, Skolimowski T, Barczyk K, Bieć E. Asymmetry of trunk in athletes of different kind of sport [in Polish]. Med Sport. 2001;17:232-235.

16. Wojtys EM, Ashton-Miller JA, Huston LJ, Moga PJ. The association between athletic training time and the sagittal curvature of the immature spine. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28(4):490-498; doi:

17. Uetake T, Ohtsuki F, Tanaka H, Shindo M. The vertebral curvature of sportsmen. J Sports Sci. 1998;16:621- 628; doi:

18. Junge A, Dvorak J. Injury risk of playing football in Futsal World Cups. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(15):1089-1092; doi:

19. Cole AJ, Herring S, Stratton SA. The lumbar spine and sports. In: Cole AJ, Hering S (eds.), The low back pain handbook: a practical guide for the primary care clinician. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus; 1997; 87-100.

20. Ribeiro CZP, Akashi PMH, Sacco ICN, Pedrinelli A. Relationship between postural changes and injuries of the locomotor system in indoor soccer athletes. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2003;9(2):98-103, doi:

21. Kowalski IM, Protasiewicz-Fałdowska H. Trunk measurements in the standing and sitting posture according to Evidence Based Medicine (EBM). J Spine Surg. 2013; 5(1):66-79.

22. Richter P, Hebgen E. Trigger points and kinematic muscle chains in osteopathy [in Polish]. Łódź: Galaktyka; 2010.

23. Śliwa W. Diagnostic-measuring device Posturometr-S, orthopaedic-prosthetic engineering [in Polish]. In: I Symposium IOP’97, 23-25 June 1997. Białystok; 259-264.

24. Rienzi E, Drust B, Reilly T, Carter JE, Martin A. Investigation of anthropometric and work-rate profiles of elite South American international soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2000;40:162-169.

25. Galy O, Zongo P, Chamari K, Chaouachi A, Michalak E, Dellal A, et al. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Melanesian futsal players: a first approach to talent identification in Oceania. Biol Sport. 2015; 32(2):135-141; doi:

26. Jovanovic M, Sporis G, Milanovic Z. Differences in situational and morphological parameters between male soccer and futsal - a comparative study. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 2011;11(2):227-238; doi:

27. Barczyk K, Skolimowski T, Hawrylak A, Bieć E. Sagittal spinal configuration in persons practicing selected sport disciplines. Med Sport. 2005;159:395-400.

28. Grabara M, Hadzik A. Postural variables in girls practicing volleyball. Biomed Hum Kinet. 2009;1(1):67-71; doi:

29. Śliwa W, Chlebicka E, Śliwa K. Posturometry of participants of World Championships in sport acrobatics. Biol Sport. 1997;14(Suppl. 7):148-151.

30. Ślężyński J, Rottermund J. Somatic indicators, body posture and foot arch of volleyball players [in Polish]. Wych Fiz Sport. 1991;35(4):59-65.

31. Lichota M, Plandowska M, Mil P. The shape of anterior- posterior curvatures of the spine in athletes practising selected sports. Pol J Sport Tourism. 2011;18(2):112- 116; doi:

32. Zeyland-Malawka E. Effects of prolonged sport training on the sagittal shape of the spine. Biol Sport. 1989; 6(Suppl. 3):255-260.

33. Wodecki P, Guigui P, Hanotel MC, Cardinne L, Deburge A. Sagittal alignment of the spine: comparison between football players and subjects without sports activities [in French]. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 2002;88(4):328-336; doi:

Human Movement

The Journal of University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.208
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.230


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 208 174 31
PDF Downloads 163 152 20