Purpose. The aim of the current investigation was to compare the 3-D tibiocalcaneal kinematics between skin- and shoe-mounted markers. Methods. Eleven male participants ran at 4.0m/s ± 5% along a 22 m runway. Tibiocalcaneal kinematics were captured simultaneously using markers placed externally on the shoe and on the skin through windows cut in the shoe. Paired t-tests were used to compare the 3-D kinematic parameters, and intraclass correlations were employed to contrast the kinematic waveforms. Results. Strong correlations were observed between the waveforms at R2 0.85. However, foot movements such as eversion range of motion, peak eversion, peak transverse plane range of motion, velocity of external rotation and peak eversion velocity were all significantly underestimated using shoe-mounted markers. Conclusions. The results indicate that shoe-mounted markers do not fully represent true foot movement.
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