Effect of Nordic Walking and Water Aerobics Training on Body Composition and the Blood Flow in Lower Extremities in Elderly Women

Open access

Abstract

Nordic walking and water aerobics are very popular forms of physical activity in the elderly population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of regular health training on the venous blood flow in lower extremities and body composition in women over 50 years old. Twenty-four women of mean age 57.9 (± 3.43) years, randomly divided into three groups (Nordic walking, water aerobics, and non-training), participated in the study. The training lasted 8 weeks, with one-hour sessions twice a week. Dietary habits were not changed. Before and after training vein refilling time and the function of the venous pump of the lower extremities were measured by photoplethysmography. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Eight weeks of Nordic walking training improved the venous blood flow in lower extremities and normalized body composition in the direction of reducing chronic venous disorder risk factors. The average values of the refilling time variable (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively) decreased in both the right and the left leg. After training a statistically significant increase in the venous pump function index was found only in the right leg (p = 0.04). A significant increase in fat-free mass, body cell mass and total body water was observed (p = 0.01), whereas body mass, the body mass index, and body fat decreased (p < 0.03). With regard to water aerobic training, no similar changes in the functions of the venous system or body composition were observed.

Abe T, Kearns CF, Sato Y. Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, Kaatsu-walk training. J Appl Physiol, 2006; 100: 1460-1466

Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett JrDR, Tudor-Locke C, Greer JL, Vezina J, Whitt-Glover MC, Leon AS. Compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2011; 43: 1575-1581

Barbosa TM, Marinho DA, Reis VM, Silva AJ, Bragada JA. Physiological assessment of head-out aquatic exercises in healthy subjects: A qualitative review. J Sport Sci Med, 2009; 8: 179-189

Callejas JM, Manasanch J. Epidemiology of chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs in the primary care setting. Int Angiol, 2004; 23: 154-63

Figard-Fabre H, Fabre N, Leonardi A, Schena F. Efficacy of Nordic walking in obesity management. Int J Sports Med, 2011; 32: 407-414

Fritz T, Caidahl K, Krook A, Lundström P, Mashili F, Osler M, Szekeres FL, Östenson CG, Wändell P, Zierath JR. Effects of Nordic walking on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes, impaired or normal glucose tolerance. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 2013; 29: 25-32

Gram B, Christensen R, Christiansen C, Gram J. Effects of nordic walking and exercise in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Clin J Sport Med, 2010; 20: 355-361

Iida H, Nakajima T, Kurano M, Yasuda T, Sakamaki M, Sato Y, Yamasoba T, Abe T. Effects of walking with blood flow restriction on limb venous compliance in elderly subjects. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging, 2011; 31: 472-476

Jawień A, Grzela T, Ochwat A. Prevalence of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in men and women of Poland. Multicenter cross-sectional study of 40095 patients. Phlebology, 2003; 3: 110-122

Kan YM, Delis KT. Hemodynamic effects of supervised calf muscle exercise in patients with venous leg ulceration - a prospective controlled study. Arch Surg, 2001; 136: 1364-1369

Kanchanabat B, Wongmahisorn Y, Stapanavatr W, Kanchanasuttirak P, Manomaiphiboon A. Clinical presentation and patterns of venous reflux in Thai patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg, 2010; 40: 399-402

Kelechi TJ, Bonham PA. Measuring venous insufficiency objectively in the clinical setting. J Vasc Nurs, 2008; 26: 67-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jvn.2008.05.002

Kortmann T, Schumacher G. Physical activity in obesity and overweight. Ther Umsch, 2013; 70: 113-117

Kravitz L, Mayo JJ. The physiological effects of aquatic exercise: A brief review. Nokomis, Fl. Aquatic Exercise Association /on line/, 1997. Available at: http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Pages/articles.html, accessed on 08.03.2014

Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet, 2012; 21: 219-229. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12) 61031-9

Lejczak A, Wilczyński J, Jasiński R, Rudzińska E, Węgrzynowska-Teodorczyk K, Josiak K, Jankowska EA, BanasiakW, Ponikowski P, Woźniewski M. 12-week Nordic walking training improves physical fitness and quality of life in patients with systolic heart failure. Eur Heart J, 2011; 32: 612

Mikalacki M, Radjo I, Cokorilo N, Korovljev D, Smajic M. Influence of Nordic walking on body composition of elderly women. Health Med, 2012; 6: 476-482

Morgulec-Adamowicz N, Marszałek J, Jagustyn P. Nordic walking- a new form of adapted physical activity (a literature review). Hum Mov, 2011; 12: 124-132

Nuttamonwarakul A, Amatyakul S, Suksom D. Twelve weeks of aqua-aerobic exercise improve physiological adaptations and glycemic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. JEPonline, 2012; 15: 64-70

Oganov RG, Savel'ev VS, Shal'nova SA, Kirienko AI, Zolotukhin IA. Risk factors of chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities and possibilities of its medication in therapeutic practice. Ter Arkh, 2006; 78: 68-72

Padberg FJr, Cerveira JJ, Lal BK, Pappas PJ, Varma S, Hobson RW. Does severe venous insufficiency have a different etiology in the morbidly obese? Is it venous? J Vasc Surg, 2003; 37: 79-85

Padberg FJr, Johnston MV, Sisto SA. Structured exercise improves calf muscle pump function in chronic venous insufficiency: a randomized trial. J Vasc Surg, 2004; 39: 79-87

Panny M, Ammer K, Kundi M, Katzenschlager R, Hirschl M. Severity of chronic venous disorders and its relationship to the calf muscle pump. Vasa, 2009; 38: 171-176

Parkatti T, Perttunen J, Wacker P. Improvements in functional capacity from Nordic walking: a randomizedcontrolled trial among elderly people. J Aging Phys Act, 2012; 20: 93-105

Purzycka D, Prusik K, Bohdan M, Sroka T, Włodarczyk P, Marczulin J, Drewek K, Prusik K, Wyrzykowski B, Zdrojewski T. Effect of 3-month Nordic walking training on arterial blood pressure in women aged 60 years and over. Arterial Hypertension, 2011; 15: 335-340

Raffaelli C, Galvani C, Lanza M, Zamparo P. Different methods for monitoring intensity during water-based aerobic exercises. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2012; 112: 125-134. doi: 10.1007/s00421-011-1963-7. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

Reis Filho AD, Amorim PD, Pazdziora AZ, Santini E, Coelho-Ravagnani CF, Voltarelli FA. Eff ect of 12 weeks of water aerobics on capillary glycemia among individuals with type II diabetes mellitus. Rev Bras Ativ Fis e Saúde, 2012; 17: 252-257

Śliwicka E, Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak Ł, Nowak A, Karolkiewicz J, Piechowiak A. HOMAIR during an oral glucose tolerance test in women participating in recreational activities in the water. 6th National Scientific Conference on Nutrition-Movement-Health, June 14-16, Poznań-Poland, Polish J Sport Med, 2007; 23: 51

Stief F, Kleindienst FI, Wiemeyer J, Wedel F, Campe S, Krabbe B. Inverse dynamic analysis of the lower extremities during nordic walking, walking, and running. J Appl Biomech, 2008; 24: 351-359

Sudoł-Szopińska I, Błachowiak K, Koziński P. Influence of environmental risk factors on the development of chronic vein insufficiency. Med Pr, 2006; 57: 365-373

Turk Z, Vidensek S, Micetic Turk D. Nordic walking: a new form of physical activity in the elderly. Acta Med Croatica, 2007; 61: 33-36

Willenberg T, Schumacher A, Amann-Vesti B, Jacomella V, Thalhammer C, Diehm N, Baumgartner I, Husmann M. Impact of obesity on venous hemodynamics of the lower limbs. J Vasc Surg, 2010; 52: 664-668

Journal of Human Kinetics

The Journal of Academy of Physical Education in Katowice

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.174
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.634

CiteScore 2017: 1.31

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.516
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.906

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 234 234 34
PDF Downloads 131 131 22