Relationship Between Depression and Strength Training in Survivors of the Ischemic Stroke

Open access


The Cerebral Vascular Accident is responsible for a significant increase in the mortality rate in individuals who have suffered this condition, regardless of the level of subsequent disability. This study aimed to analyze the influence of a strength training program on indicators of depression in survivors of the ischemic stroke. The study sample included subjects from both genders who were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG) consisting of 11 subjects aged 51.7 8.0 years, and a control group (CG) consisting of 13 subjects aged 52.5 7.7 years. The EG underwent 12 weeks of strength training. Assessment was made in the pre-test before training and at the re-test after 12 weeks of training. We used the Beck Depression Inventory and evaluated 1RM. Significant differences in depression were found between post-test and pretest measurements (Δ% = -21.47%, p = 0,021) in the EG; furthermore, there were significant differences in all indicators of depression between the EG and CG after completing 12 weeks of training. There were significant gains in strength of the EG in relation to the CG. There was a negative correlation between the strength gains as determined with the 1RM test and the levels of depression, especially in lower-limb exercises. The results of this study suggest that improvements in strength are negatively correlated with levels of depression. Improvements in strength are therefore associated with a reduction in levels of depression.

Aidar FJ, de Oliveira RJ, Silva AJ, de Matos DG, Carneiro AL, Garrido N, Hickner R, Reis VM. The influence of the level of physical activity and human development in the quality of life in survivors of stroke. Health Quality of life outcomes, 2011; 3(9): 89

Aidar FJ, de Oliveira RJ, Silva AJ, de Matos DG, Mazini Filho ML, Hickner RC, Machado Reis V. The influence of resistance exercise training on the levels of anxiety in ischemic stroke. Stroke Res Treatment, 2012; 5: 3

Aidar FJ, Silva AJ, Reis VM, Carneiro A, Carneiro-Cotta S. Quality of life in ischemic stroke and its relationship com physical activity. Rev Neurol, 2007; 45(9): 518-522

Baechle TR, Groves RW. Weight training: steps to success. Human Kinetics Publishers; 2006

Beck AT, Steer RA, Carbin MG. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psychol Review, 1988; 8(1): 77-100

Borghi-Silva A, Mendes RG, Toledo AC, Sampaio LMM, da Silva TP, Kunikushita LN, Costa D. Adjuncts to physical training of patients with severe COPD: oxygen or noninvasive ventilation? Resp Care, 2010; 55(7): 885-894

Carod-Artal FJ. Post-stroke depression (II): its differential diagnosis, complications and treatment. Neurology J, 2006; 42(4): 238

Chu KS, Eng JJ, Dawson AS, Harris JE, Ozkaplan A, Gylfadóttir S. Water-based exercise for cardiovascular fitness in people with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabilitation, 2004; 85(6): 870-874

Devereux GR, Wiles JD, Swaine IL. Reductions in resting blood pressure after 4 weeks of isometric exercise training. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2010; 109(4): 601-606

Ding Y, Li J, Lai Q, Rafols JA, Luan X, Clark J, Diaz FG. Motor balance and coordination training enhances functional outcome in rat with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neuroscience, 2004; 123(3): 667

Dunn G, Sham P, Hand D. Statistics and the nature of depression. Psychol Med, 1993; 23(04): 871-889

Fleck SJ, Kraemer WJ. Designing resistance training programs. Human Kinetics Publishers; 2004

Fu Q, VanGundy TB, Galbreath MM, Shibata S, Jain M, Hastings JL, Levine BD. Cardiac origins of the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. J Am College of Cardiology, 2010; 55(25): 2858-2868

Gearhart RF, Lagally KM, Riechman SE, Andrews RD, Robertson RJ. Strength tracking using the OMNI resistance exercise scale in older men and women. J Strength Cond Res, 2009; 23(3): 1011-1015

Gerrits KH, Beltman MJ, Koppe PA, Konijnenbelt H, Elich PD, de Haan A, Janssen TW. Isometric muscle function of knee extensors and the relation with functional performance in patients with stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabilitation, 2009; 90(3): 480-487

Gorenstein C, Andrade LH. Beck Depression Inventory: psychometric properties of the Portuguese version. J Psiq Clín, 1998; 25: 245-50

Haan R, Limburg M, Bossuyt P, Van der Meulen J, Aaronson N. The clinical meaning of Rankin ‘handicap’grades after stroke. Stroke, 1995; 26(11): 2027-2030

Hadidi N, Treat-Jacobson DJ, Lindquist R. Poststroke depression and functional outcome: a critical review of literature. Heart & Lung: J Acute Critical Care, 2009; 38(2): 151-162

Hankey GJ. Potential New Risk Factors for Ischemic Stroke What Is Their Potential? Stroke, 2006; 37(8): 2181-2188

Hankey GJ. Secondary prevention of recurrent stroke. Stroke, 2005; 36(2): 218-221

Hass CJ, Feigenbaum MS, Franklin BA. Prescription of resistance training for healthy populations. Sports Medicine, 2001; 31(14): 953-964

Herterich B, Steube D, Buhner M. Treadmill therapy in patients after ischemic stroke. Rehabilitation, 2004; 43: 137-41

Kim CM, Eng JJ, MacIntyre DL, Dawson AS. Effects of isokinetic strength training on walking in persons with stroke: a double-blind controlled pilot study. J Stroke Cerebro Diseases, 2001; 10(6): 265

Lagally KM, Robertson RJ. Construct validity of the OMNI resistance exercise scale. J Stren Cond Research, 2006; 20(2): 252-256

Lee MJ, Kilbreath SL, Singh MF, Zeman B, Davis GM. Effect of progressive resistance training on muscle performance after chronic stroke. Med Sci Sports Exer, 2010; 42(1): 23-34

Lovell DI, Cuneo R, Gass GC. Strength training improves submaximal cardiovascular performance in older men. J Ger Phys Therapy, 2009; 32: 117-24

Murrell CJ, Cotter JD, George K, Shave R, Wilson L, Thomas K, Ainslie PN. Cardiorespiratory and cerebrovascular responses to head-up tilt I: influence of age and training status. Experimental Gerontol, 2011; 46(1): 9-17

Noda H, Iso H, Toyoshima H, Date C, Yamamoto A, Kikuchi S, Tamakoshi A. Walking and sports participation and mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke. J Am Col Cardiol, 2005; 46(9): 1761-1767

Ouellette MM, LeBrasseur NK, Bean JF, Phillips E, Stein J, Frontera WR, Fielding RA. High-intensity resistance training improves muscle strength, self-reported function, and disability in long-term stroke survivors. Stroke, 2004; 35(6): 1404-1409

Pang MY, Eng JJ, Dawson AS. Relationship Between Ambulatory Capacity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Chronic Stroke Influence of Stroke-Specific Impairments. Chest Journal, 2005; 127(2): 495-501

Patten C, Lexell J, Brown HE. Weakness and strength training in persons with poststroke hemiplegia: rationale, method, and efficacy. J Rehabil Res Devel, 2004; 41(3): 293-312

Rabelo D, Néri A. Subjective well-being and sense of psychological adjustment in elderly stroke patients: a review. Est Psic, 2006; 11: 169-77

Roth EJ, Mueller M, Green D. Cardiovascular response to physical therapy in stroke rehabilitation. Neuro Rehabil 1992; 2: 7-13

Sachdev PS, Brodaty H, Valenzuela MJ, Lorentz L, Looi JCL, Wen W, Zagami AS. The neuropsychological profile of vascular cognitive impairment in stroke and TIA patients. Neurology, 2004; 62(6): 912-919

Sharp SA, Brouwer BJ. Isokinetic strength training of the hemiparetic knee: effects on function and spasticity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1997; 78(11): 1231-1236

Tanaka-Matsumi J, Kameoka VA. Reliabilities and concurrent validities of popular self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and social desirability. J Consul Clin Psychol, 1986; 54(3): 328

Van de Port IG, Wevers L, Roelse H, Van Kats L, Lindeman E, Kwakkel G. Cost-effectiveness of a structured progressive task-oriented circuit class training programme to enhance walking competency after stroke: the protocol of the FIT-Stroke trial. BMC neurology, 2009; 9(1): 43

Weerdesteyn V, de Niet M, Van Duijnhoven HJ, Cho A, Geurts MD. Falls in individuals with stroke. Differences, 2008; 33: 36

Yon Joo L, Yin TS, Xu D, Thia E, Chia PF, Kuah CWK, He KK. A feasibility study using interactive commercial off-the-shelf computer gaming in upper limb rehabilitation in patients after stroke. J Rehabilitation Med, 2010; 42(5): 437-441

Journal of Human Kinetics

The Journal of Academy of Physical Education in Katowice

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.174
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.634

CiteScore 2017: 1.31

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.516
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.906

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 155 155 27
PDF Downloads 51 51 8