Reliability of Tethered Swimming Evaluation in Age Group Swimmers

Open access

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of tethered swimming in the evaluation of age group swimmers. The sample was composed of 8 male national level swimmers with at least 4 years of experience in competitive swimming. Each swimmer performed two 30 second maximal intensity tethered swimming tests, on separate days. Individual force-time curves were registered to assess maximum force, mean force and the mean impulse of force. Both consistency and reliability were very strong, with Cronbach's Alpha values ranging from 0.970 to 0.995. All the applied metrics presented a very high agreement between tests, with the mean impulse of force presenting the highest. These results indicate that tethered swimming can be used to evaluate age group swimmers. Furthermore, better comprehension of the swimmers ability to effectively exert force in the water can be obtained using the impulse of force.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Akis T Orcan Y. Experimental and analytical investigation of the mechanics of crawl stroke swimming. Mech Res Commun2004; 31: 243-261 Barbosa TM Bragada JA Reis VM Marinho DA Carvalho C Silva AJ. Energetics and biomechanics as determining factors of swimming performance: updating the state of the art. J Sci Med Sports2010; 13: 262-269

  • Barbosa TM Morouço PG Jesus S Feitosa WG Costa MJ Marinho DA Silva AJ Garrido ND. The interaction between intra-cyclic variation of the velocity and mean swimming velocity in young competitive swimmers. Int J Sports Med2013; 34 (2):123-130

  • Bollens E Annemans L Vaes W Clarys JP. Peripheral EMG comparison between fully tethered and free front crawl swimming.In BE Ungerechts K Wilke K Reischle (Eds.) Swimming Science V. London Spon Press

  • 173-181; 1988

  • Christensen CL Smith GW. Relationship of maximum sprint speed and maximal stroking force in swimming. J Swim Res1987; 3: 18-20

  • Dopsaj M Matković I Zdravković I Dopsaj M Matković I Zdravković I. The relationship between 50m-freestyle results and characteristics of tethered forces in male sprint swimmers: A new approach to tethered swimming test. Phys Educ & Sport2000; 1(7): 15-22

  • Dopsaj M Matković I Thanopoulos V Okičć T. Reliability and validity of basic kinematics and mechanical characteristics of pulling force in swimmers measured by the method of tethered swimming with maximum intensity of 60 seconds. Phys Educ & Sport2003; 1(10): 11-22

  • Fomitchenko TG. Relationship between sprint speed and power capacity in different groups of swimmers.In K Keskinen P Komi P Hollander (Eds.) Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VIII. Jyväskylä Finland: University of Jyväskylä 203-207; 1999

  • Girold S Maurin D Dugue B Chatard JC Millet G. Effects of dryland vs. resisted-and assisted-sprint exercises on swimming sprint performances. J Strength Cond Res2007; 21:599-605

  • Keskinen KL Tilli LJ Komi PV. Maximum velocity swimming: interrelationships of stroking characteristics force production and anthropometric measures. Scand J Sports Sci1989; 11: 87-92

  • Kjendlie PL Thorsvald K. A tethered swimming power test is highly reliable. Port J Sport Sci2006; 6(S2): 231-233

  • Lavoie JM Montpetit RR. Applied physiology of swimming. Sport Med1986; 3(3): 165-189

  • Magel JR. Propelling force measured during tethered swimming in the four competitive swimming styles. Res Q1970; 41: 68-74

  • Maglischo C Maglischo E Sharp R Zier D Katz A. Tethered and non-tethered crawl swimming.In J Terauds K Barthels E Kreighbaum R Mann & J Crakes (Eds.) Proceedings of ISBS: Sports Biomechanics. Del Mar: Academic Publication 163-176; 1984

  • Marinho DA Silva AJ Reis VM Barbosa TM Vilas-Boas JP Alves FB Machado L Rouboa AI. Three-dimensional CFD analysis of the hand and forearm in swimming. J Appl Biomech2011; 27: 74-80

  • Morouço P Keskinen KL Vilas-Boas JP Fernandes RJ. Relationship between tethered forces and the four swimming techniques performance. J Appl Biomech2011a; 27: 161-169

  • Morouço PG Neiva H González-Badillo JJ Garrido N Marinho DA Marques MC. Associations between dry land strength and power measurements with swimming performance in elite athletes: a pilot study. J Hum Kinet2011b; 29A: 105-12

  • Morouço PG Vilas-Boas JP Fernandes RJ. Evaluation of adolescent swimmers through a 30-s tethered test. Ped Exerc Sci2012; 24(2): 312-321

  • Morouço Pedro G Marinho Daniel A Keskinen Kari L Badillo Juan J Marques Mário C. Tethered swimming can be used to evaluate force contribution for short-distance swimming performance. J Strength Cond Res2014; doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000509

  • Newton RU Jones J Kraemer WJ Wardle H. Strength and Power Training of Australian Olympic Swimmers. Strength Cond J2002; 24(3): 7-15

  • Ogonowska A Hübner-WoźniaK E Kosmol A Gromisz W. Anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers. Biomed Hum Kin2009; 1: 79-82

  • Payton C Baltzopoulos V Bartlett R. Contributions of rotations of the trunk and upper extremity to hand velocity during front crawl swimming. J Appl Biomech2002; 18(3): 243-256

  • Pessôa-Filho DM Denadai BS. Mathematical basis for modelling swimmer power output in the front crawl tethered swimming: an application to aerobic evaluation. Open Sports Sci J2008; 1: 31-37

  • Psycharakis SG Paradisis GP Zacharogiannis E. Assessment of accuracy reliability and force measurement errors for a tethered swimming apparatus. Int J Perfor Anal Sport2011; 11(3): 410-416

  • Ria B Falgairette G Robert A. Assessment of the mechanical power in the young swimmer. J Swim Res1990 6(3): 11-15

  • Sidney M Pelayo P Robert A. Tethered forces in crawl stroke and their relationship to anthropometrics characteristics and sprint swimming performance. J Hum Mov Studies1996; 31: 1-12

  • Stager JM Coyle MA. Energy Systems.In J Stager & D Tanner D (Eds.) Swimming - Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science. Massachusetts Blackwell Science 1-19; 2005

  • Taylor S Lees A Stratton G MacLaren D. Reliability of force production in tethered freestyle swimming among competitive age-group swimmers. J Sports Sci2001; 19: 12-13

  • Toubekis AG Gourgoulis V Tokmakidis SP. Tethered Swimming as an Evaluation Tool of Single Arm-Stroke Force.In KL Kjendlie RK Stallman & J Cabri (Eds.) Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming XI. Oslo: Norwegian School of Sport Science 296-299; 2010

  • Vorontsov A Dyrco V Binevsky D Solomatin V Sidorov N. Patterns of growth for some characteristics of physical development functional and motor abilities in boy-swimmers 11-18 years.In K. Keskinen P. Komi A. Peter Hollander Biomehanics and Medicine in Swimming. VIIIJyväskulä Finland: Gummerus Printing 327-335; 1999

  • Vorontsov A. Strength and power training in swimming.In L Seifert D Chollet & I Mujika (Eds.) World Book of Swimming: From Science to Performance. New York: Nova Science Publishers 313-343; 2010

  • Yeater RA Martin RB White MK Gilson KH. Tethered swimming forces in the crawl breast and back strokes and their relationship to competitive performance. J Biomech1981; 14: 527-537

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.414
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.858

CiteScore 2018: 1.60

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.644
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.941

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 304 120 7
PDF Downloads 103 49 7