Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists

Open access

Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between all parameters. The mean somatotype of judoists was: 3.5-5.9-1.8 (values for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively). The values (mean±SD) of sum of muscle torque of ten muscle groups (TOTAL) was 3702.2±862.9 N × m. The power output ranged from 393.2±79.4 to 1077.2±275.4 W. The values of sum of muscle torque of right and left upper extremities (SUE), sum of muscle torque of right and left lower extremities (SLE), sum of muscle torque of the trunk (ST) and TOTAL were significantly correlated with the mesomorphic component (0.68, 0.80, 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). The ectomorphic component correlated significantly with values of SUE, SLE, ST and TOTAL (-0.69, -0.81, -0.71 and -0.79, respectively). Power output was also strongly correlated with both mesomorphy (positively) and ectomorphy (negatively). The results indicated that the values of mesomorphic and ectomorphic somatotype components influence muscle torque and power output, thus body build could be an important factor affecting results in judo.

Boguszewska K, Boguszewski D, Buśko K. Special Judo Fitness Test and biomechanics measurements as a way to control of physical fitness in young judoists. Archives of Budo, 2010; 6(4): OA205-209. Manuscript ID: 881273.

Buśko K. Economical and optimal pedaling velocity characteristics during maximal and submaximal efforts on cycloergometer. Biol Sport, 2007; 24 (3): 209-226.

Buśko K, Nowak A. Changes of maximal muscle torque and maximal power output lower extremities in male judoists during training. Human Movement, 2008; 9 (2): 111-115.

Carlock J, Smith SL, Harman M, Morris R, Ciroslan D, Pierce KC, Newton RU, Harman E, Sands W, Stone MH. Relationship between vertical jump power estimates and weightlifting ability: A field test approach. J Strength Cond Res, 2004; 18: 534-539.

Carter JEL. Somatotyping. In K. Norton and T. Olds (eds.), Anthropometrica, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 1996; 147-170.

Charzewski J, Kuźmicki S. Changes of judoist's constitution and sport's results. Phys Educ Sport, 1989; 1: 21-25. [in Polish, English abstract]

Charzewski J, Głaz A, Kuźmicki S. Somatotype characteristics of elite European wrestlers. Biol Sport, 1991; 8 (4): 213-221.

Claessens A, Beunen G, Wellens R, Geldof G. Somatotype and body structure of world top judoists. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1987; 27 (1):105-113.

Cronin JB, McNair PJ, Marshall R. The role of maximal strength and load on initial power production. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2000. 32: 1763-1769.

Fagerlund R, Häkkinen H. Strength profile of Finnish judoists - measurement and evaluation. Biol Sport, 1991; 8 (3): 143-149.

Farmosi I. Body-composition, somatotype and some motor performance of judoists. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1980; 20 (4): 431-434.

Franchini E, Takito MY, Kiss MAPDM, Sterkowicz S. Physical fitness and anthropometrical differences between elite and non-elite judo players. Biol Sport, 2005; 22(4): 315-328.

Häkkinen K. Neuromuscular and hormonal adaptations during strength and power training. A review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1989; 29: 9-26.

Janiak J, Wit A, Stupnicki R. Static muscle force in athletes practicing rowing. Biol Sport, 1993; 10 (1): 29-34.

Jaszczuk J, Buczek M, Karpiłowski M, Nosarzewski Z, Wit A, Witkowski M. Set-up force measurements in static condition. Biol. Sport, 1987; 4 (1/2): 41-55.

Katič R. The influence of morphological characteristics on selected motor variables in boys and girls. Biol Sport, 1996; 13(1), 47-53.

Krawczyk B, Skład M, Majle B. Body components of male and female athletes representing various sports. Biol Sport, 1995; 12 (4): 243-250.

Krawczyk B, Skład M, Jackiewicz A. Heath-Carter somatotypes of athletes representing various sports. Biol Sport, 1997; 14 (4): 305-310.

Kuźmicki S, Charzewski J. Sheldon somatic types as an important selective criterion in judo. Phys Educ Sport, 1987; 2: 43-50. [in Polish, English abstract]

Norton K, Whittingham N, Carter L, Kerr D, Gore C, Marfell-Jones M. Measurement techniques in anthropometry. In K. Norton, and T. Olds (eds.), Anthropometrica. University of New South Wales. Sydney, 1996; 25-75.

Pilis W, Wojtyna J, Langfort J, Zając A, Manowska B, Chmura J, Zarzeczny R. Relationships between sport results, somatic variables and anaerobic power in elite weight lifters. Biol Sport, 1997; 14 (4): 275-281.

Quarrie KL., Handcock P, Toomey MJ, Waller AE. The Rugby Injury and Performance Project. IV: Anthropometric and physical performance comparisons between positional groups of senior A rugby players. British J Sports Med, 1996; 30: 53-56.

Quarrie KL, Wilson BD. Force production in the rugby union scrum. J Sports Sci, 2000; 18: 237-246.

Sands WA, Smith SL, Kivi DMR, McNeal JR, Dorman JC, Stone MH, Cormie P. Anthropometric and Physical Abilities Profiles: US National Skeleton Team. Sports Biomech, 2005; 4 (2): 197-214.

Siahkouhian M, Hedayatneja M. Correlations of anthropometric and body composition variables with the performance of young elite weightlifters. J Human Kinetics, 2010; 25: 125-131.

StatSoft, Inc. 2007; STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 8.0.

Stone MH, Moir G, Glaister M, Sanders R. How much strength is enough? Physical Therapy in Sport, 2002; 3: 88-96.

Stone MH, O'Bryant HS, McCoy L, Coglianese R, Lehmkuhl M, Schilling B. Power and maximum strength relationships during performance of dynamic and static weighted jumps. J. Strength Cond. Res, 2003; 17: 140-147.

Tanner JM. The physique of the Olympic athletes. George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, 1964.

Thomas SG, Cox MH, Le Gal YM, Verde TJ, Smith HK. Physiological profiles of the Canadian National Judo Team. Can J Sport Sci, 1989; 14(3): 142-147.

Weiner JS, Lourie JA. Human Biology, a Gide to Field Methods. International Biological Programme. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford and Edinburgh, 1969.

Journal of Human Kinetics

The Journal of Academy of Physical Education in Katowice

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.174
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.634

CiteScore 2017: 1.31

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.516
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.906

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 350 329 29
PDF Downloads 128 126 8