Contribution of Peripheral and Central Fatigue in Different Conditions (Gender and Time of Day Differences)
The aim of the present study was to examine the rate of central and peripheral contributions in circadian rhythms and gender differences after exhausted maximal exercise. From 36 volunteers, 12 healthy male and female subjects who had H-reflex (It is elicited by electrical stimulation and it has been suggested to be one of mechanisms that could cause central fatigue) were selected (mean age of 23.5±1.37 years, height of 166.83±5.11cm, weight of 59.8±9.15 kg, VO2max of 33.14±4.71 ml. kg-1. min-1in male subjects and mean age of 23±6.32 years, height of 165.17±2.48 cm, weight of 56±2.09 kg and VO2max of 29.05±2.89 ml. kg-1. min-1 in female subjects) and took part in this investigation. Central (MVC, latency of H-reflex, amplitude of H-reflex and ratio of H-reflex to M-wave) and peripheral properties of fatigue (blood lactate and M-wave) were recorded before and after an exhausted maximal exercise at two different times of day: 9 am and 6 pm which is separated by a week. Significant differences were found in HR, blood lactate and latency of H-reflex before and after exercise. However differences between male and female in MVC, amplitude of H-reflex, ratio of H-reflex to M-wave and M-wave was significant. With induced -exercise, central and peripheral fatigue was higher in men in the morning and in women in the afternoon., thus our results recommended designing suitable exercise programs for men and women in the afternoon and morning, respectively. However, further studies are needed to confirm these results, especially in recommending using transcranial magnetic stimulation.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Adams GM and WC Beam. Exercise physiology Laboratory Manual. Fifth edition. Mc Grow Hill:141 2008.
American college of sports medicine. ACSM's Advanced Exercise Physiology. lippincott Williams&Wilkins 2006.
Aschoff J. Circadian rhythms in man. Science 1995. 148:1427-1432.
Behm DG Whittle J Button D and Power K. Inter muscle differences in activation. Muscle Nerve 2002. 25: 236-243.
Bigland-Ritchie B Woods JJ. Changes in muscle contractile properties and neural during human muscular fatigue. Muscle Nerve. 1984. 7:691-699.
Burke D Adams RW and Skuse NF. The effect of voluntary contraction on the H-reflex of human limb muscles. Brain. 1989. 112:417-433.
Castaingts V Martin A Van Hoecke J Perot C. Neuromuscular efficiency of the triceps surae in induced and voluntary contractions: morning and evening evaluations. Chronobiol Int 2004. 21:515-527.
Constantini NW Dubnov G Constanse ML. The menstrual cycle and sport performance. Clin Sports Med. 2005. 24:51-82.
Chen XY Chen L Wolpaw JR and Jakman LB. Corticospinal tract transaction reduces H-reflex circadian rhythm in rats. Brain research 2002. 942(1-2): p101-108.
Darleen A Sandoval S Katheleen S. Gender differences in the endocrine and metabolic responses to hypoxic exercise. Appl Physiol 2002. 92: 504-512.
Davis SN Galassett P Wasserman DH and Tate D. Effects of gender on neuroendocrine and metabolic counter regulatory responses to exercise in normal man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000. 85: 224-230.
De Ruitier CJ and De Haan A. Similar effects of cooling and fatigue on eccentric and concentric force-velocity relationships in human muscle J Appl Physiol 2001. 90: 2109-2116.
Enoka RM. Neuromechanical Basis of Kinesiology. Human kinetics. Second edition. 1994. P 283-288. P: 177-179.
Fulco CS Rock PB Muza SR Lammi E Cymerman A Butterfield G Moore LG Braun B Lewis SF. Slower fatigue and faster recovery of the adductor policis muscle in women matched for strength with men. Acta Physiol Scand 1999. 167:233-239.
Gandevia SC. Spinal and super spinal factors in human muscle fatigue. Physiol Rev. 2001. 81:1725-1789.
Gardiner FPH. Neuromuscular aspects of physical activity. Human Kinetics. 2001.
Garland SJ Gossen. E. R. The muscular wisdom hypothesis in human Muscle fatigue Exerc Sport sci Rev. 2002.30(1): 45-49.
Guette M Gondin J Martin A. Morning to evening changes in the electrical and mechanical properties of human soleus motor units activated by H-reflex and M-wave. Eur J Appl Physiol 2005a. 95:377-381.
Guette M Gondin J Martin A. Time -of- day effect on the torque and neuromuscular properties of dominant and non-dominant quadriceps femoris. Chronobiol Int 2005b. 22:1-18.
Hargreaves M Mckenna MJ Jenkins DG Warnington SA Li JL Snow RJ and Febbraio MA. Muscle Metabolites and performance during high-intensity intermittent exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 1998. 1687-1691.
Hatzikotoulas K Siatras T Spyropouiou E Paraschos I Patikas D. Muscle fatigue and elecromyographic changes aren't different in women and men matched for strength. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004. 92:298-304.
Hicks Al Kent-Braun JA and Ditor DS. Gender differences in human skeletal muscle fatigue. Exerc. Sport. Sci. Rov. 2001. 29: 109-112.
Hunter KS Enoka RM. Gender differences in the fatigability of arm muscles depend on absolute force during isometric contractions. J Appl physiol. 2001. 91: 2686-2694.
Hunter SK Duchateau J Enoka RM. Muscle fatigue and the mechanisms of task failure. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2004. 32(2): 44-49.
Kent-Brown JA Ng AV Doyle JW and Towse TF. Human skeletal muscle responses vary with age and gender during fatigue due to incremental exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 2002. 93:1873-1823.
Kent-Brown JA. Central and peripheral contributions to muscle fatigue in humans during sustained maximal effort. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1999. 80:57-63.
Löscher WN and Nordlund MM. Central fatigue and motor cortical excitability during repeated shortening and lengthening actions. Muscle Nerve 2002.25: 864-872.
Macefield G Hagbarth KE Gorman R Gandevia SC and Burke D. Decline in spindle support to alpha-motoneurones during sustained voluntary contractions. J Physiol 1999. 440: 497-512.
Marino FE. Anticipatory regulation and avoidance of catastrophe during exercise -induced hyperthermia. Comp Biochem Physio B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004. 139: 561-569.
Martin A Carpentier A Guissard N Van Hoecke A. Effects of ATP ADP and Pi. J Musc Res Cell Motil: 1989. 135-146.
Maughan RJ Harman M Leiper JB Sale D and Delman A. Endurance capacity of untrained males and females in isometric and dynamic muscular contractions. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1986. 55:395-400
Mclester JR. Muscle contraction and fatigue: the role of adenosine de phosphate and inorganic phosphate. Sport Med. 1997. 23:287-305.
Melanson EL Sharp TA Seagle HM Horton TJ Dunahoo WT Grunwald GK Hamilton TJ Hill JO. Effect of exercise intensity on 24-h energy expenditure and nutrient oxidation. J Appl physiol. 2002. 92: 1045-1052.
Nordlund MM et al. Central and peripheral contributions to fatigue in relation to level of activation during repeated maximal voluntary isometric plantar flexions. J. Appl. Physiol 2003. (96): 218-225.
O'Toole LM. Gender differences in cardiovascular responses to exercise. Cardiovasc Clin 1989. 19(3):17-33.
Robergs RA and SJ Keteyian. Exercise physiology. Second edition. McGraw Hill: 2003. 297
Russ D Kent-brown J. Gender differences in human skeletal muscle fatigue are eliminated under ischemic conditions. J Appl Physiol 2003. 96(9):2414-2442.
Ryan SM Goldberger AL Pincus SM Mietus J Lipsitz LA. Gender and age related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men? J Am Coll Cardiol 1994. 24(7):1700-7.
Sandiford SD Green TA Duhamel JG Perco JD Ouyang J. Inactivation of human muscle Na- K- ATPase in vitro during prolonged exercise is increased with hypoxia. J Appl physiol. 2004. 96: 1764-1775.
Simonsen EB and Dyhre PP. Amplitude of the human soleus H-reflex during walking and running. J Physiol. 1999. 515:929-939.
Stackhouse SK Reisman DS Binder-Macleod SA. Challenging the role of ph in skeletal muscle fatigue. Physical Therapy. 2001. 1897-1902.
Tanino Y Daikuya S Nishimori T Takasaki K Suzuki T. M-wave and H-Reflex of soleus muscle before and after electrical simulation in healthy subjects. J Electromyogr Clin Nerophysiol 2003. 43(6):381-4.
Westing SH Cresswell AG and Thorstensson A. Muscle activation during maximal voluntary eccentric and concentric knee extension. Eur J Appl Physiol 1999. 62: 104-108.