The Effects of a Yoga Intervention on Balance, Speed and Endurance of Walking, Fatigue and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system that results in many symptoms including mobility limitation, fatigue and redacted quality of life.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a yoga intervention on balance, speed and endurance of walking, fatigue and quality of life in MS patients.
21women with MS (34.38±5,68) with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores 1.0 to 4.0, have been randomly assigned to a yoga group or control group. Yoga group subjects participated in a thrice weekly 60-70 minute sessions of Hatha yoga intervention for 8-weeks. Balance, speed and endurance of walking, fatigue and quality of life were measured by Berg Balance scores; 10-m time and 2-minute distance walking, Fatigue Severity Scale (FFS) and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQOL-54) respectively.
Comparison of results of pre and post intervention revealed significant improvement on balance score, walking endurance, FFS and some of MSQOL-54 scale scores in the yoga group (p≤0.05 respectively). There were no clear changes in10-m times (p= 0.132), related to yoga group. No changes were observed for control group.
These results suggest that yoga intervention can be beneficial for patients with MS
Berg K. O., Maki B. E., Williams J. Clinical and laboratory measures of postural balance in an elderly population. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1992; 73: 1073-1089.
Berger B., Owen D. Stress reduction and mood enhancement in four exercise modes: swimming, body conditioning, Hatha yoga, and fencing. Res Q Exerc Sport 1988; 59: 148-159.
Béthoux F. Fatigue and multiple sclerosis. Annales de réadaptation et de médecine physique 2006; 49: 355-360.
Bjarnadottir O. H., Konradsdottir A. D., Reynisdottir K., Olafsson E. Multiple sclerosis and brief moderate exercise. A randomized study. Multiple Sclerosis 2007; 6: 776-782.
Chaya M. S., Kurpad A. V., Nagendra H. R., Nagarathna R. The effect of long term combined yoga practice on the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2006; 6(28): 1-6.
Debolt L., McCubbin j. The effects of home-based resistance exercise on balance power and mobility in adults with multiple sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85, 290-297.
Faragoso Y. D., Santana D. L. B., Pinto R. C. The positive effects of a physical activity program for multiple sclerosis patients with fatigue. NeuroRehabilitation 2008; 23(2): 153-157.
Fisk J. D., Pontefract A., Ritvo P. G., Archibald C. J., Murray T. J. The impact of fatigue on patients with multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci 1994; 21 (1):9-14.
Gallien P., Nicolas B., Robineau S., Pétrilli S., Houedakor J., Durufle A. Physical training and multiple sclerosis. Annales de réadaptation et de médecine physique 2007; 50: 373-376.
Hale L., Schou E., Piggot j., Littman A., Tumilty S. The effect of combined exercise program for people with Multiple sclerosis: a Case series. Newzeland Jornal of physiotherapy 2003; 31(3):130-138.
Jaime K. the effects of a 10 week yoga intervention on balance, mobility, spasticity and quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis. A Thesis presented to the school of kinesiology Lakehead University (Canada), 2006:1-16.
Kantarci, O., Wingerchuk, D. Epidemiology and natural history of multiple sclerosis: new insights. Curr. Opin. Neurol 2006; 19: 248-254.
Kent-Braun J. A., Ng A. V., Castro M., Weiner M. W., Gelinas D., Dudely G. A, Miller R. G. Strength, skeletal muscle composition, and enzyme activity in multiple sclerosis. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83:1998-2004.
Killeff J., Ashburn A. A pilot study of the effect of aerobic exercise on people with moderate disability Multiple sclerosis. Clinical Rehabilitation 2005; 19(2): 165-169.
Kishiyama S., Carlsen J., Lawrence J., Small E., Zajdel D., Oken B. Yoga as an Experimental Intervention for Cognition in Multiple Sclerosis. International journal of yoga terapy 2002; 12: 57-62.
Mostert S., Kesselring J. Effects of a short term exercise training program on aerobic fitness, fatigue, health perception and activity level of subjects with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2002; 8:161-168.
Motl RW, McAuley E, Snook EM. Physical activity and multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Multiple Sclerosis 2005; 11: 459-463.
Nagarathna R., Nagendra H. R. Combined approach of yoga therapy for positive health. 2nd edition. Bangalore, Swami Vivekananda yoga Prakashana; 2004.
Nagendra H.R, Nagaratna R. An integrated approach of yoga therapy for bronchial asthma: A 3-54 month prospective study. J Asthma 1986; 23:123-137.
Newman M. A., Dawes H., van den Berg M., Wade D. T., Burridge J., Izadi H. Can aerobic treadmill training reduces the effort of walking and fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Multiple Sclerosis 2007; 13: 113-119.
Oken B. S., Kishiyama S., Bourdette D., Carlsen J., Haas M., Hugos C., Kraemer D. F., Lawrence J., Mass M. Randomized controlled trial of yoga and exercise in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2004; 62: 2058-64.
Prasad K. V. V., Venkata ramana Y., Raju P. S., Venkata reddy M., Murthy K. J. R. Energy cost and physiological efficiency in male yoga practitioners. Journal of exercise Physiologyonline 2001; 4(3): 38-44.
Raju P. S., Madhavi S., Prasad KVV., Venkata Reddy M., Eswara Reddy M., Sahay BK. Comparison of effects of yoga & physical exercise in athletes. Indian J Med Res 1994; 100:81-87.
Rampello A., Franceschini M., Piepoli M., Antenucci R., Lenti G., Olivieri D., Chetta A. Effect of Aerobic Training on Walking Capacity and Maximal Exercise Tolerance in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Crossover Controlled Study. Physical Therapy 2007; 5: 1-11.
Romberg A., Virtanen A., Ruutiainen T., Seppanen A. Effects of a 6-month exercise program on patients with Multiple sclerosis. Neurotology 2004; 63:2034-2038.
Rossier P., Wade D. T. Validity and reliability comparison of 4 mobility measures in patients presenting with neurologic impairment. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 9-13.
Sahay B. K. Yoga and diabetes. J Assoc Physicians India 1986; 34:645-648.
Schulz K., Gold S., Witte J., Bartsch K., Lang U., Hellweg R, Reer R., Braumann K. M. Hessen C. H. Impact of aerobic training on immune-endocrine parameters, neurotrophic factors, quality of life and coordinative function in multiple sclerosis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 2004; 225: 11-18.
Selvamurthy W., Sridharan K., Ray U. S., Tiwari R. S., Hegde K. S., Radhakrishnan U. A new physiological approach to control essential hypertension. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 42:205-213.
Snook E., Motl R. Effect of exercise training on walking mobility in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009; 23(2):108-16.
Svensson B., Gerdle B., Elert J. Endurance Training in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Five Case Studies. Physical Therapy 1994; 11: 1017-1026.
Telles S., Reddy S K., Nagendra HR. Oxygen consumption and respiration following two yoga relaxation techniques. Appl psychophysiol Biofeedback 2000; 25:221-27.
Van den Berg M., Dawes H., Wade D. T., Newman M., Burridge J., Izadi H. Treadmill training for people with multiple sclerosis; a pilot randomised trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006; 77: 531-533.
White L. J., McCoy S. C., Castellano V., Gutierrez G., Stevens J. E., Walter G. A., Vandenborne K. Resistance training improves strength and functional capacity in persons with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2004; 10: 668-674.
Zwick D. Yoga and multiple sclerosis: Consortium of MS Centers. 10/4/2004. Available from http://www.mscare.org