During a survey on the biodiversity of plant-parasitic nematodes in citrus orchards of Khuzestan province (Southwestern Iran), 97 root and soil samples were collected. Nematodes were extracted and identified using morphological and morphometric diagnostic characters. Six nematode species were identified, namely: Helicotylenchus abunaamai, H. crenacauda, Pratylenchus allius, P. musii, Psilenchus hilarulus and Tylenchulus semipenetrans. Except T. semipenetrans, the remaining five species were found only in the rhizosphere of citrus, not in citrus roots, and their pathogenicity on citrus plants was not further studied. This is the first record of P. allius and P. musii for the nematode fauna in Iran. H. crenacauda is a new record for the nematode fauna in the Khuzestan province and is reported for the first time in citrus orchards in Iran. To our knowledge, this is the first report of H. abunaamai in citrus orchards worldwide.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Abivardi C. Izadpanah K. and Saffarian A. 1970. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with citrus decline in southern Iran. Plant Disease Reporter 54: 339-342.
Akhiani A. Mojtahedi H. and Naderi A. 1984. Species and physiological races of root-knot nematodes in Iran. Iranian journal of plant pathology 20: 57-70.
Ali Ramaji F. Pourjam E. and Karegar A. 2006. Species of Helicotylenchus steiner 1954 from Jiroft and Kahnoj region. Iranian Journal of plant pathology 42: 473-489.
Castillo P. and Vovlas N. 2007. Pratylenchus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae): diagnosis biology pathogenicity and management. Hunt D. J. and Perry R.N. (eds). Nematology monographs and Perspectives volume 6. Leiden The Netherlands Brill Academic Publishers 530 p.
Colbran R.C. 1963. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 6. Two new species from citrus orchards. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science 20: 469-474.
Coolen W.A. and D’Herde C.J. 1972. A method for the quantitative extraction of nematodes from plant tissue. State Agricultural Entomology Research Station. Ghent Belgium 77 p.
De Grisse A.T. 1969. Redescription and modification of some techniques used in the study of nematodes phytoparasitaires. Mededelingen Rijksfacultiet Landbouw Wetenschappe Gent 34: 351-369.
Deori A. Das D. and Sumita K. 2014. Nematode community around banana rhizosphere in Jorhat district of Assam. Indian Journal of Nematology 44: 252-254.
Divsalar N. Jamali S. Pedramfar H. and Taheri H. 2011. Identification of plant parasitic nematodes of citrus orchards in Guilan east and Mazandaran west province. Journal of Plant Protection 25: 168-177.
Duarte A. Fernandes J. Bernardes J. and Miguel J. 2016. Citrus as a component of the Mediterranean diet. Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics 6: 289-304.
Duncan L.W. 2005. Nematode parasites of citrus. In Luc M. Sikora R.A. and Bridge J. (eds). Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture. Wallingford: CAB International p. 437-466.
FAOSTAT. 2017. Citrus Fruit-Fresh and Processed. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available at: http://faostat.fao.org
Firoza K. and Maqbool M.A. 1991. Description of Rotylenchus capsicum n. sp. and morphometric data on five known species of the genus Helicotylenchus Steiner 1945 (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) recorded from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology 9: 71-78.
Geraert E. 2008. The Tylenchidae of the world: Identification of the family Tylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Ghent Belgium Academia Press 530 p.
Geraert E. 2013. The Pratylenchidae of the world: Identification of the family Pratylenchidae (Nematoda). Ghent Belgium Academia Press 430 p.
Ghaderi R. Kashi L. and Karegar A. 2012. The nematodes of Iran based on the published reports until 2011. Agricultural Education and Extension Publication: Tehran Iran 371 p.
Hooper D.J. Hallmann J. and Subbotin S.A. 2005. Methods for extraction processing and detection of plant and soil nematodes. In Luc M. Sikora R.A. and Bridge J. (eds). Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture. Wallingford: CAB International p. 53-86.
Inserra R.N. Vovlas N. O’bannon J.H. and Esser R.P. 1988. Tylenchulus graminis n. sp. and T. palustris n. sp. (Tylenchulidae) from native flora of Florida with notes on T. semipenetrans and T. furcus. Journal of Nematology 20: 266-287.
Jahanshahi Afshar F. Pourjam E. and Kheiri A. 2006. Tylenchs associated with jiroft orchards and a description of four newly found species for the nematode fauna of Iran. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 37: 529-545.
Jenkins W.R. 1964. A rapid centrifugal flotation technique for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Disease Reporter 48: 692.
Kashi L. Karegar A. 2014. Description of Helicotylenchus persiaensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Iran. Zootaxa 3785: 575-588. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3785.4.6.
Kepenekci İ. 2002. Plant parasitic nematode species of Tylenchida (Nematoda) associated with sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) growing in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 26: 323-330.
Kheiri A. 1995. Plant parasitic nematode fauna of sugarcane in Iran. Nematologica 41: 277-356.
Machon J.E. and Bridge J. 1996. Radopholus citri n.sp. (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae) and its pathogenicity on citrus. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 19: 127-133.
McElroy F.D. Sher S.A. and Van Gundy S.D. 1966. The sheath nematode Hemicycliophora arenaria a native to California soils. Plant Disease Reporter 40: 581-583.
Mizukubo T. Toida Y. and Keereewan S. 1992. A survey of nematodes attacking crops in Thailand. I. Genus Helicotylenchus Steiner 1945. Japanese Journal of Nematology 22: 26-36.
Mohammad Deimi A. Chitambar J.J. and Tanha Maafi Z. 2008. Nematodes associated with flowering ornamental plants in Mahallat Iran. Nematologia Mediterranea 36: 115-123.
Mohammad Deimi A. and Mitkowski N. 2010. Nematodes associated with vineyards throughout Markazi province (Arak) Iran. Australasian Plant Pathology 39: 571-577. doi: 10.1071/AP10044.
Pedramfar H. Pourjam E. and Kheiri A. 2002. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with rice in Gilan Province. Iranian Journal Plant Pathology 37: 285-301.
Rashidifard M. Shokoohi E. Hoseinipour A. and Jamali S. 2014. Study of nematodes in the rhizosphere of citrus orchards southeast of Iran. Journal of Nematology 46: 226.
Rashidifard M. Shokoohi E. Hoseinipour A. and Jamali S. 2015. Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Nematoda: Tylenchulidae) on pomegranate in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 10: 1-6. DOI: 10.1007/s13314-014-0157-7.
Sauer M.R. and Winoto R. 1975. The genus Helicotylenchus Steiner 1945 in West Malaysia. Nematologica 21: 341-350.
Shahina F. and Maqbool M.A. 1996. Two new species of the genus Radopholus Thorne 1949 (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Pakistan. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 19: 289-292.
Sher S.A. 1966. Revision of the Hoplolaiminae (Nematoda). VI. Helicotylenchus Steiner 1945. Nematologica 12: 1-56. DOI: 10.1163/187529266x00013.
Siddiqi M.R. 1972. On the genus Helicotylenchus Steiner 1945 (Nematoda: Tylenchida) with descriptions of nine new species. Nematologica 18: 74-91. DOI: 10.1163/187529272x00278.
Siddiqi M.R. 2000. Tylenchida: parasites of plants and insects. CABI Publishing Wallingford UK 848 p.
Stirling G.R. 1976. Paratrichodorus lobatus associated with citrus peach and apricot trees in South Australia. Nematologica 22: 138-144. DOI: 10.1163/187529276X00210.
Tanha Maafi Z. Ebrahimi N. Barooti S. Khozeini F. and Karegar A. 2006. Occurrence of Scutellonema brachyurus (Stiener 1938) Andrassy 1956 in Damghan Guilan and Gollestan region. Iranian journal of Plant Pathology 42: 197-200.
Verdejo-Lucas S. and McKenry M.V. 2004. Management of the Citrus Nematode Tylenchulus semi-penetrans. Journal of Nematology 36: 424-432.
Whitehead A.G. and Hemming J.R. 1965. A comparison of some quantitative methods of extracting small vermiform nematodes from soil. Annual Applied Biology 55: 25-38.
Yassin A.M. 1974. A note on Longidorus and Xiphinema species from the Sudan. Nematologia Mediterranea 2: 141-147.