Randia dumetorum (family Rubiaceae) is highly reputed ayurvedic medicinal tree commonly known as the Mainphal. A large deciduous thorny shrub grows up to 5 m of height. It occurs almost throughout India up to 1200 m of altitude. It is found in Himalaya from Jammu East ward ascending to 400 m and from Kashmir to East ward up to 1200 m. 11-methylixoside (compound 1), an iridoid glucoside, was isolated from the bark of this plant. The structure was characterized by using spectroscopic methods including 1D-1HNMR,13C-NMR and 2D-NMR (HSQC,HMBC, DQF-COSY) experiments and confirmed by comparison of their NMR data with those from the literature. This compound has been reported for the first time in Randia dumetorum bark. The 11-methylixoside was subjected to cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer cell line) and SK-MEL-2 (human skin melanoma cell line), BE(2)C (neuroblastoma cell line derived from human bone marrow) and U87MG (human neuronale glioblastoma (astrozytom) cell line showed appreciable cytotoxic effect with IC50 value 63.10 µg/ml concentration for SK-MEL-2 (human skin melanoma cell line).