Quantifying spirorchiid eggs in splenic histological samples from green turtles

Open access

Summary

The present study proposes a new methodology for the quantification of parasite eggs in animal tissue. Quantification of parasites are important to understand epidemiology of spirorchiid infections in sea turtles, however different methodologies for quantifying Spirorchiidae eggs in turtle tissues have been used. The most representative way to quantify Spirorchiidae burdens in tissues is counting eggs / g of tissue, however, this method is very laborious. As an alternative, we propose quantifying number of Spirorchiidae eggs/area of tissue on a microscope slide. We compared this method to number of eggs / slide, a common metric of egg burden in turtle tissues. Both methods correlated well with eggs / g with eggs/mm2 of tissue having better correlation.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Aguirre A. Spraker T. Balazs G. Zimmerman B. (1998): Spirorchidiasis and fibropapillomatosis in green turtles from the Hawaiian islands. J. Wildl. Dis. 34(1): 91 – 98. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-34.1.91

  • Balazs G.H. Chaloupka M. (2004): Thirty-year recovery trend in the once depleted Hawaiian green sea turtle stock. Biol. Cons. 117(5): 491 – 498. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2003.08.008

  • Chapman P. Owen H. Flint M. Magalhães R. Traub R. Cribb T. Kyaw-Tanner M. Mills P. (2017): Molecular epidemiology and pathology of spirorchiid infection in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Int. J. Parasitol. 6(1) 39 – 47. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2017.03.001

  • Chen H. Kuo R.J. Chang T.C. Hus C.K. Bray R.A. Cheng I.J. (2012): Fluke (Spirorchiidae) infections in sea turtle stranded on Taiwan: prevalence and pathology. J. Parasitol. 98(2): 437 – 439. DOI: 10.1645/GE-2875.1

  • Dailey M. Morris R. (1995): Relationship of parasites (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) and their eggs to occurrence of fibropapillomas in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52(S1): 84 – 89. DOI: 10.1139/f95-512

  • Flint M. Patterson-Kane J.C. Limpus C.J. Millis P.C. (2010): Health surveillance of stranded green turtles in southern Queensland Australia (2006-2009): An epidemiological analysis of causes of disease and mortality. EcoHealth 7(1): 135 – 145. DOI: 10.1007/s10393-010-0300-7

  • Flint M. Paterson-Kane J.C. Limpus C.J. Work T.M. Blair D. Mills P.C. (2009): Postmortem diagnostic investigation of disease in free-ranging marine turtle populations: a review of common pathologic findings and protocols. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 21(6): 733 – 759. DOI: 10.1177/104063870902100601

  • Glazebrook J. Campbell R. Blair D. (1981): Pathological changes associated with cardiovascular trematodes (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) in a green sea turtle Chelonia mydas. J. Comp. Pathol. 91(3): 361 – 368. DOI: 10.1016/0021-9975(81)90006-2

  • Goldberg D. Stahelin G. Cegoni C. Wanderlinde J. Paes E Lima E. Medina R. Ribeiro R. Da Silva M. Queiroz De Carvalho E. (2013): Case report: Lung Spirorchidiasis in a Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) in Southern Brazil. Marine Turtle Newsletter 139: 14 – 15. Retrieved October 6 2018 from http://www.seaturtle.org/mtn

  • Goodchild C.G. Dennis E.S. (1967): Comparative eggs counts and histopathology in turtles infected with Spirorchis (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae). J. Parasitol. 53(1): 38 – 45

  • Gordon A. Kelly W. Cribb T. (1998): Lesion Caused by Cardiovascular Flukes (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) in Stranded Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas). Vet. Pathol. 35(1): 21 – 30. DOI: 10.1177/030098589803500102

  • Hirth H. (1997 August): Synopsis of biological data on the green turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus 1758). Biological Report 97(1): 1 – 120

  • Marchiori E. Negrisolo E. Casini R. Garofalo L. Poppi L. Tessarin C. Marcer F. (2017): Cardiovascular flukes (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) in Caretta caretta Linnaeus 1758 from the Mediterran Sea. Parasit. Vectors 10: 1 – 14. DOI: 10.1186/s13071-017-2396-x

  • Schneider C. Rasband W. Eliceiri K. (2012): NIH Image to Image J: 25 years of image analysis. Nat. Methods 9(7): 671 – 675

  • Seminoff J.A. (2004). Chelonia mydas. In: IUCN2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved December 20 2018 from https://www.iucnredlist.org. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T4615A11037468.en

  • Platt T. (2002): Family Spirorchiidae Stunkard. In: Gibson D. Jones A. Bray R. (Eds) Keys to the Trematoda. Volume 1. London UK: CABI Publishing and The Natural History Museum pp. 453 – 467

  • Raidal S.R. Ohara M. Hobbs R.P. Prince R.I.T. (1998): Gram-negative bacterial infections and cardiovascular parasitism in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Aust. Vet. J. 76(6): 415 – 417

  • Ribeiro R.B. Jerdy H. Werneck M.R. Goldberg D.W. Bianchi M. Carvalho E.C.Q. (2017): Parasitic ulcerous caseous gastroesophagits associated with Rameshwarotrema uterocrescens Rao (1975) (Digenea: Pronocephalidae) in a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus 1758 [Testudines: Cheloniidae]): A case report. J. Parasitol. 103(3): 292 – 294. DOI: 10.1645/16-106

  • Santoro M. Morales J.A. Stacy B. Greiner E.C. (2007): Rameshwarotrema uterocrescens trematode parasitism of the oesophageal glands in green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas). Vet. Record 160(2): 56 – 60

  • Santoro M. Di Nocera F. Iacarino D. Lawton S.P. Cerrone A. Degli U.B. D’amore M. Affuso A. Hochscheid S. Mafucci F. Galiero G. (2017): Pathology and molecular analysis of Hapalotrema mistroides (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) infecting a Mediterranean loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta. Dis. Aquat. Organ. 124(2): 101 – 108. DOI: 10.3354/dao03117

  • Stacy B. Foley A. Greiner E. Herbst L. Bolten A. Klein P. Manire C. Jacobson E. (2010): Spirorchiidiasis in stranded loggerhead Caretta caretta and green turtles Chelonia mydas in Florida (USA): host pathology and significance. Dis. Aquat. Organ. 89(3): 237 – 259. DOI: 10.3354/dao02195

  • Werneck M.R. Nunes C. Jerdy H. Carvalho E.C.Q. (2017): Loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus 1758) (Testudines Cheloniidae) as a new host of Monticellius indicum Mehra 1939 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) and associated lesioned to spirorchiid eggs. Helminthologia 54(4): 363 – 368. DOI: 10.1515/helm-2017-0047

  • Wolke R.E. Brooks D.R. George A. (1982): Spirorchidiasis in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta): Pathology. J. Wildl. Dis. 18(2): 175 – 185

  • WoRMS Editorial Board (2018). World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved October 11 2018 from http://www.marinespecies.org. DOI:10.14284/170

  • Work T. Balazs G. Rameyer R. Morris R. (2004): Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomatosis from the Hawaiian Islands 1993-2003. Dis. Aquat. Org. 62(1-2): 163 – 176. DOI: 10.3354/dao062163

  • Work T. Balazs G. Schumacher J. Marie A. (2005): Epizootiology of Spirorchiid Infection in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii. J. Parasitol. 91(4): 871 – 876. DOI: 10.1645/GE-454R.1

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.731
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.634

CiteScore 2018: 0.8

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.398
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.554

Target audience: researchers in the field of human, veterinary medicine and natural science
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 187 187 34
PDF Downloads 81 81 16