Prevalence and intensity of Cornudiscoides agarwali (Monogenoidea) on the gills of Day’s mystus (Mystus bleekeri) in relation to some ecological and biological factors from Arunachal Pradesh, India

Open access


This work investigated the relationship of host size, seasons, and water quality parameters with the prevalence and intensity of Cornudiscoides agarwali on Mystus bleekeri collected from the Dikrong River in Arunachal Pradesh, India from February 2016 to January 2017. A total of 2760 specimens of C. agarwali were recovered from 114 individuals of M. bleekeri. The levels of mean intensity, but not the prevalence, of infection of C. agarwali were positively correlated with fish host size, peaking in the largest size class (45.20 ± 5.69 parasites/fish). The prevalence values had a statistically significant seasonal trend, reaching highest (100 %) during the pre-monsoon season, followed by 91.8% during the post-monsoon period and 87.5 % during the monsoon season. The levels of mean intensity of infection were also dependent on the seasons, reaching significantly higher levels during the pre-monsoon season (42.75 ± 4.18 parasites/fish). All water quality parameters measured were within the safety value recommended for freshwater aquaculture. Cornudiscoides agarwali maintained its prevalence above 87.5 % throughout the annual cycle, which means it was able to reproduce year-round in a non-polluted river. This could be an indication of monogenoidean community and population dynamics thriving best under optimum water quality parameters. Also, this article draws the attention of parasitologists and ichthyologists to a taxonomic problem of the misidentification of Mystus spp., and therefore, possibly of their parasitic monogenoids.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Agarwal N. Vishwakarma P. (1996): Six new species and redescription of two known species of Cornudiscoides Kulkarni 1969 (Monogenea) from Lucknow U.P. Indian J. Helminth. (N.S.) 13: 10 – 31

  • Anderson R.M. (1974): An analysis of the influence of host morphometric features on the population dynamics of Diplozoon paradoxum (Nordmann 1832). J. Anim. Ecol. 43: 873 – 887. DOI: 10.2307/3541

  • American Public Health Association (1998): Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 20th Edition Washington USA American Water Work Association and Water Environment Federation 361 pp.

  • Bagra K. Kadu K. Sharma K.N. Laskar B.A. Sarkar U.A. Das D.N. (2009): Ichthyological survey and review of the checklist of fish fauna of Arunachal Pradesh India. Check List 5: 330 – 350. DOI: 10.15560/5.2.330

  • Beer S.A. German S.M. (1993): The ecological prerequisites for a worsening of the cercariasis situation in the cities of Russia (exemplified by the Moscow region). Parazitologiia 27(6): 441 – 449.

  • Boyd C.E. (1979): Water Quality in Warm Water Fish Ponds. Alabama USA Auburn University 359 pp.

  • Bush A.O. Lafferty K.D. Lotz J.M. Shostak A.W. (1997): Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. Int. J. Parasitol. 83: 575 – 583. DOI: 10.2307/3284227

  • Chetry D.B. Narba D. Tripathi A. (2012): Traditional fishing methods in Arunachal Pradesh. In A. Tripathi (Ed.) Proceedings of the 1st National Symposium on Fish Parasites Itanagar Helminthological Society of India March 19 – 20 2012. pp 41 – 44

  • Choudhary K. Tripathi A. Pandey K.C. Agrawal N. (2017): Morphological and molecular characterisation of three Indian Neascus-type metacercariae (Digenea: Diplostomidae). Parasitol. Int. 66: 652 – 659. DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2017.06.007

  • Dahanukar N. (2011): Mystus keletius. In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T172324A6867980. Retrieved March 18 2018 from–1.RLTS.T172324A6867980.en.

  • Darshan. A. Mahanta P.C. Barat A. Kumar P. (2013): Redescription of the striped catfish mystus tengara (Hamilton 1822) (Siluriformes: Bagridae) India. J. Threat. Taxa 5(1): 3536 – 3541. DOI: 10.11609/JoTT.o2813.842

  • Deka J.P. Tayeng G. Singh S. Hoque R.R. Prakash A. Kumar M. (2015): Source and seasonal variation in the major ion chemistry of two eastern Himalayan high altitude lakes. Arabian J. Geosci. 8(12):10597 – 10610. DOI: 10.1007/s12517-015-1964-7

  • Desdevises Y. Morand S. Legendre P. (2002): Evolution and determinants of host specificity in the genus Lamellodiscus (Monogenea). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 77: 431 – 443

  • Froese R. Pauly D. (2018): Fish Base. Retrieved March 2 2018 from

  • Ganicott A.M. Tinsley R.C. (1998): Larval survival characteristics and behaviour of the gill monogenean Discocotyle sagittata. Parasitology 117: 491 – 498

  • Guegan J.F. Lambert A. Leveque C. Combes C. Euzet L. (1992): Can host body size explain the parasite species richness in tropical freshwater fishes? Oecol. 90:197 – 204

  • Gussev A.V. (1976): Freshwater Indian monogenoidea: Principles of systematics analysis of the world faunas and their evolution. Ind. J. Helminthol. 25 – 26: 1 – 241

  • Höglund J. Thulin J. (1989): Thermal effects on the seasonal dynamics of Paradiplozoon homoion (Bychowsky and Nagibina 1959) parasitizing roach Rutilus rutilus (L.). J. Helminthol. 63: 93 – 101. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X0000883X

  • Hossain M.Y. (2014): Threatened fishes of the world: (Bloch 1794) (Siluriformes: Bagridae). Croatian Journal of Fisheries 72: 183 – 185

  • Huda E.A. (2017): Morphometric characteristics of Dikrong River catchment in the foot-hills of Arunachal Himalayas. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science 22(7): 51 – 60

  • Jayaram K.C (1999): The Freshwater Fishes of the Indian Region Narendra Publishing House pp551.

  • Jayaram K.C. Sanyal A. (2003): A taxonomic revision of the fishes of the genus Mystus Scopoli. (Family: Bagridae) records of the zoological survey of India. Zoological Survey of India 207: 1 – 141

  • Johal M.S. Tandon K.K. (1979): Monograph on the fishes of organised Punjab. Part I. Punjab Fish Bulletin 3(2): 1 – 44

  • Jokinen E.I. Aaltonen T.M. Valtonen E.T. (1995): Subchronic effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on the immunoglobulin synthesis of roach Rutilus rutilus. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 32: 219–263. DOI: 10.1006/eesa.1995.1107

  • Kim K.H. Ahn K.J. Kim C.S. (2001): Seasonal abundances of Prosomicrocotyla gotoi (Monogenea) and Opecoelus sphaericus (Digenea) from greenlings Hexagrammos otakii in a southern coastal area in Korea. Aquaculture 192(2 – 4):147 – 153. DOI: 10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00464-6

  • Kottelat M. Whitten T. (1996): Freshwater biodiversity in Asia with special reference to fish. In: World Bank Tech. Paper No. 343. The World Bank Washington DC. pp 17 – 22

  • Kritsky D.C. Thatcher V.E. Boeger W.A. (1986): Neotropical Monogenea. Revision of Urocleidoides (Dactylogyridae Ancyrocephalinae). Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 53: 1 – 37

  • Lim L.H.S. Timofeeva T.A. Gibson D.I. (2001): Dactylogyridean monogeneans of the siluriform fishes of the Old World. Syst. Parasitol. 50: 159 – 197

  • Marcogliese D.J. (2001) Implications of climate change for parasitism of animals in the aquatic environment. Can J Zool. 2001 79(8): 1331 – 1352. DOI: 10.1139/z01-067

  • Mahanta P.C. Sarma D. Dutta R. (2012). Ecological Status and Fishery Potential of Deopani: a Coldwater Stream of Arunachal Pradesh. The Clarion 1: 37 – 45

  • McDowell J.E. Lancaster B.A. Leavitt D.F. Rantamaki P. Ripley B. (1999): The effects of lipophilic organic contaminants on reproductive physiology and disease processes in marine bivalve molluscs. Am. Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: 903 – 909

  • National Commission On Farmers (2004): Serving farmers and saving farming from crisis to confidence (second report) New Delhi. 523 pp. Retrieved from

  • Ng H.H. (2002): The identity of Mystus nigriceps (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840) with the description of a new bagrid catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from Southeast Asia. Raffles B. Zool. 50: 161 – 168.

  • Ng H.H. (2010): Mystus bleekeri. 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T166611A6247112.15. Retrieved February 2018 from 20104.RLTS. T166611A6247112.en

  • Pandey K.C. Agrawal N. (2008): An Encyclopedia of Indian Monogenoidea. New Delhi Vitasta Publishing Pvt. Ltd. 552 pp.

  • Pandey A. Dabral P.P. Chowdary V.M. Yadav N.K. (2008): Landslide hazard zonation using remote sensing and GIS: A case study of Dikrong River basin Arunachal Pradesh India. Environ. Geol. 54: 1517 – 1529. DOI: 10.1007/s00254-007-0933-1

  • Peters R. H. (1983): The ecological implications of body size. Cambridge University Press Cambridge. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511608551

  • Plamoottil M. (2017): Taxonomic notes on Mystus species of northern Kerala. J. Aquacult. Res. Dev. 8: 495. DOI: 10.4172/2155-9546.1000495

  • Poulin R. (1998): Evolutionary Ecology of Parasites: From Individuals to Communities. London Chapman and Hall 212 pp.

  • Sasal P. Trouve S. Muller-Graf C. Morand S. (1999): Specificity and host predictability: a comparative analysis among monogenean parasites of fish. J. Anim. Ecol. 68 437 – 444. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2656.1999.00313.x

  • Semwal N. Akolkar P. (2006): Water quality assessment of sacred Himalayan rivers of Uttaranchal. Curr. Sci. 91: 486 – 496

  • Siddall R. Koskivaara M. Valtonen E.T. (1996): Dactylogyrus (Monogenea) infections on the gills of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) experimentally exposed to paper and pulp mill effluent. Parasitology 114: 439 – 446. DOI: 10.1017/S003118209600875X

  • Silan P. Maillard C. (1989): Biologie comparée du développement et discrimination des Diplectanidae ectoparasites du Bar (Teleostei).[Comparative biology of development and discrimination of Diplectanidae ectoparasites of sea bass (Teleostei)]. Annls Sci. Nat. 10: 31 – 45 (In French)

  • Simkova A. Desdevises Y. Gelnar M. Morand S. (2000): Co-existence of nine gill ectoparasites (Dactylogyrus: Monogenea) parasitising the roach (Rutilus rutilus L.): history and present ecology. Int. J. Parasitol. 30: 1077 – 1088. DOI: 10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00098-9

  • Singh S.S. Chingakham B.S. Gusheinzed W. (2013): Karyotype Analysis of the New Catfish Mystus ngasep (Siluriformes: Bagridae) from Manipur India. Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sc. 13: 179 – 185. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-v13_1_21

  • Soni V. Shekhar S. Singh D. (2014): Environmental flow for the Yamuna river in Delhi as an example of monsoon rivers in India. Curr. Sci. 106: 558 – 564

  • Sures B. (2004): Environmental Parasitology: Relevancy of parasites in monitoring environmental pollution. Trends Parasitol. 20: 170 – 177. DOI:10.1016/

  • Swan L.D. (1997): A Fish Farmer’s Guide to Understanding Water Quality Aquaculture Extension. Illinois USA Purdue University Indiana Sea Grant Program Fact Sheet AS-503.

  • Thompson J. D. Higgins D.G. Gibson T.J. (1994): ClustalW: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res. 22 (22): 4673 – 4680. DOI: 10.1093/nar/22.22.4673

  • Thoney D.A. Hargis W.H.J. (1991): Monogenea (Platyhelminthes) as hazards for fish in confinement. Annu. Rev. Fish Dis. 1: 133 – 153. DOI: 10.1016/0959-8030(91)90027-H

  • Tripathi A. (2014): The invasive potential of parasitic monogenoids (platyhelminthes) via the aquarium fish trade: An appraisal with special reference to India. Rev. Aquacult. 6: 147 – 161. DOI: 10.1111/raq.12035

  • Valtonen E.T. Holmes J.C. Koskivaara M. (1997): Eutrophication pollution and fragmentation: effects on parasite communities in roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) in four lakes in central Finland. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 54(3): 572 – 585 DOI: 10.1139/f96-306

  • Wangchu L. Narba D. Yassa M. Tripathi A. (2017): Dactylogyrus barnae sp. n. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea) infecting gills of Barilius barna Hamilton 1822 (Pisces: Cyprinidae) from a global biodiversity hotspot - Arunachal Pradesh (India). Vet. World 10(5) 505 – 509. DOI:10.14202/vetworld.2017.505-509

  • Wetzel R.G. (1983): Limnology. 2nd Edition Philadelphia USA Saunders College Publishing

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.731
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.634

CiteScore 2018: 0.8

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.398
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.554

Target audience: researchers in the field of human, veterinary medicine and natural science
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 269 269 22
PDF Downloads 133 133 9