Regression of alveolar echinococcosis after chronic viral hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a

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We present a case of 53 years old patient with transplanted kidney, chronic hepatitis C and alveolar echinococcosis who was treated with pegylated interferon α which resulted in regression and calcification of Echinococcus multilocularis loculi. Patient had been diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C two years after kidney transplantation. Hepatitis was left untreated because of immunosuppressive treatment and satisfactory graft function. Nine years after transplantation the patient was diagnosed with alveolar echinococcosis and treated with mebendazole 2 × 200 mg daily for 6 months. Cessation of temporary treatment resulted in echinococcosis progression with appearance of secondary loculi and a small ascites after which mebendazole was restarted. Ten years after transplantation, kidney graft failure occurred and the patient was started on hemodialysis in conjunction with pegylated-interferon alpha 2a for treatment of chronic viral hepatitis C. Complete early viral response was observed 3 months after therapy initiation while a follow-up CT scan after 4 months did not document any changes in the number or size of E. multilocularis loculi. A completed course of antiviral therapy resulted in sustained viral response while a subsequent second follow-up CT scan 6 months after cessation of antiviral therapy documented regression and calcification of main E. multilocularis loculi along with resolution of secondary loculi and ascites.

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