In the present study, the fine surface structures of Cystocaulus ocreatus and its worm as well as brood nodules obtained from the lung of Akkaraman sheep are demonstrated by scanning electron and light microscopy. The mouth of the parasite obtained from the worm nodules is located at the anterior tip and encircled by a collar of tissue. The mouth opening appears as three slits conjoined in the shape of a capital case letter Y, creating three lips. The mouth is surrounded by six papillae just behind the collar. The anterior end was similar in both sexes and covered by numerous wrinkles. Female parasite has a bell-shaped pro-vagina. The posterior end of the female parasite was sharply pointed. The male parasite has a bursa. In the worm nodule, curled parasites were enclosed by a capsula and no eggs and larvae of the parasite were observed. In the brood nodule, heavily affected alveoli and bronchioles contained excessive amounts of larvae and eggs.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 Anderson R. C. (2000): Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates. Their Development and Transmission. 2ndEdition. CABI Publishing CABI International.
 Berrag B. Cabarret J. (1996): Impaired pulmonary gas exchange in ewes naturally infected by small lung-worms. Int. J. Parasitol. 26: 1397–1400 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(96)00132-4
 Berrag B. Cabarret J. (1997): Assessment of the severity of natural infections of kids and adult goats by small lungworms (Protostronglylidae Nematoda) using macroscopic lesion scores. Vet. Res. 28: 143–148
 Guttekova A. Zmoray I. (1974): Comparative study of the ultrastructure of muscle cells in pneumohelminths. Helminthologia 15: 585–602
 Hernandez de Lujan S. Muela De la N. Ferre I. (2001): Helminth parasites in goats in Valencia region. Med. Vet. 18: 476–482
 Levine N. D. (1968): Nematode Parasites of Domestic Animals and of Man. Burgess Publishing Company USA.
 Meana A. Luzon-Pena M. Santiago-Moreno J. Bulines A. De Gomez-Bautista M. De Bulnes A. (1996): Natural infection by gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary nematodes in moufflons (Ovis musimon) and their response to netobimin treatment. J. Wildlife Dis. 32: 39–43
 Radfar M. H. Ghorbani A. (2003). A report on the helminth infections of native sheep slaughtered at Kerman abattoir. IJVR 4: 109–113
 Sattlerová-Štefančíková A. (2005): Chamois and its Parasites. Press Print Košice
 Schnieder T. (2000): Helminthosen der Wiederkauer. In Rommel M. Eckert J. Kutzer E. Korting W. Schneider T. (Eds): Veterinarmedizinische Parasitologie. 5. Vollstandig neubearbeitere Auflage. Parey Buchverlag Berlin. pp. 192–295
 Švarc R. (1984) Pulmonary nematodes of the chamois Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica Blahout 1971. 1. Pathomorphological picture of lungs during the development of worms into the adult stage. Helminthologia 21: 141–150
 Yildiz K. (2006): Prevalence of lungworm infection in sheep and cattle in Kirikkale province. T. Parazitol. Derg. 30: (in press)