Changes in trehalase activity and trehalose level during Ascaris suum (Nematoda) embryogenesis

Open access

Abstract

The levels of trehalose and the activity of trehalase during the development of Ascaris suum eggs were investigated. The level of trehalose in the zygote was high (2.96 ± 0.07 mg/g). During cleavage of eggs, it decreased (0.91 ± 0.35 mg/g). A higher concentration of the sugar was recorded at the blastula and during gastrulation, but it did not reach the uncleaved eggs level. In the early motile larvae, the concentration of trehalose was high (4.58 ± 2.01 mg/g). It decreased with development of L1 larvae (3.10 ± 1.47 mg/g). A rapid increase in trehalose reserves was observed between the L1 and L2 stages. The highest content of trehalose was found in invasive L2 larvae (5.78 ± 1.39 mg/g).

The activity of trehalase at the zygote stage was high (560.22 ± 322.31 U/mg). It decreased at the beginning of cleavage. It was the lowest at the 4–6-cell stage (189.76 ± 114.97 U/mg). An increase in the enzyme activity occurred after reaching the blastula stage (348.44 ± 343.34 U/mg). The highest trehalase activity was recorded during the L1 larvae stage (635.72 ± 251.16 U/mg). The activity of that enzyme was about three times lower in the invasive stage larvae than in the L1 larvae.

[1] Anya, A. O. (1976): Physiological aspects of reproduction in nematodes. Adv. Parasitol., 14: 267–351 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-308X(08)60516-3

[2] Behm, C. A. (1997): The role of trehalose in the physiology of nematodes. Int. J. Parasitol., 27: 215–229 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(96)00151-8

[3] Beis, L., Barrett J. (1975): Energy metabolism in developing Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. II. The steady state content of intermediary metabolites. Develop. Biol., 42: 188–195 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-1606(75)90323-1

[4] Conn, D. B. (1991): Atlas of Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. A John Wiley and Sons, INC., Publication, New York-Chichester-Brisbane-Toronto-Singapore: 70–89

[5] Dahlqvist, A. (1968): Assay of intestinal disaccharidases. Anal. Biochem., 22: 99–107 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(68)90263-7

[6] Dmitryjuk, M., Żółtowska, K. (2004): Trehalose catabolism enzymes in tissues of Ascaris suum (Nematoda). Helminthologia, 41: 63–66

[7] Dubinský, P., Ryboš, M., Turčeková, L’. (1980): Distribution of glycogen in Ascaris suum and Parascaris equorum (Nematoda) males and females. Zool. Anz. (Jena), 204: 147–153

[8] Fairbairn, D., Passey, R. F. (1957): Occurrence and distribution of trehalose and glycogen in the eggs and tissues of Ascaris lumbricoides. Exp. Parasitol., 6: 566–574 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-4894(57)90039-5

[9] Foor, W. E. (1967): Ultrastructural aspects of oocyte development and shell formation in Ascaris lumbricoides. J. Parasitol., 53: 1245–1261 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3276689

[10] Jagdale, G. B., Grewal, P. S. (2003): Acclimation of entomopathogenic nematodes to novel temperatures: trehalose accumulation and the acquisition of thermotolerance. Int. J. Parasitol., 33: 145–152 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(02)00257-6

[11] Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L., Randall, R. J. (1951): Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193: 265–275

[12] Lyšek, H., Malinski, J., Janish, R. (1985): Ultrastructure of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 — I. Eggshells. Folia Parasitol., 32: 381–384

[13] Murrel, K. D., Eriksen, L., Nansen, P., Slotved, H.-C., Rasmussen, T. (1997): Ascaris suum: a revision of its early migratory path and implications for human ascariasis. J. Parasitol., 83: 255–260 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3284450

[14] Nambu, Z., Nambu, F., Tanaka, S. (1997): Purification and characterization of trehalase from Artemia embryos and larvae. Zool. Sci., 14: 419–427 http://dx.doi.org/10.2108/zsj.14.419

[15] Passey, R. F., Fairbairn, D. (1957): The conversion of fat to carbohydrate during embryonation of Ascaris eggs. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol., 35: 512–535

[16] Pellerone, F. I., Archer, S. K., Behm, C. A., Grant, W. N., Lacey, M. J., Somerville, A. C. (2003): Trehalose metabolism genes in Caenorabditis elegans and filarial nematodes. Int. J. Parasitol., 33: 1195–1206 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(03)00173-5

[17] Polyakova-Krusteva, O., Bruňanská, M., Dubinský, P. (1985): The influence of fertilization on the ultrastructure of Ascaris suum eggs. Helminthologia, 22: 233–244

[18] Rogers, W. P., Petronoijevič, T. (1982): In Symons L.E.A., Donald A.D., Dineen J. K. (Eds): The invasive stage and the development of Nematodes. Biology and control of endoparasites. Academy Press. Australia (Sydney, N.Y., London): 3–28

[19] Schierenberg, E., Wiegner, O., Bossinger, O., Skiba, F., Kutzowitz, M. (1998): Pattern formation and cell specyfication in nematode embryos: A theme with considerable variations. Zoology, 100: 320–327

[20] Turčeková, L’., Zemek, J., Dubinský, P., Ryboš, M. (1985): The glycogen synthase activity of muscles and reproductive organs of Ascaris suum females. Helminthologia, 22: 47–54

[21] Turčeková, L’., Zemek, J., Dubinský, P., Ryboš, M. (1986): Phosphorylase a and b activity in the muscle and reproductive organs of Ascaris suum females. Helminthologia, 23: 79–84

[22] Wharton, D. A., Judge, K. F., Worland, M. R. (2000): Cold acclimation and cryoprotectants in freeze-tolerant Antarctic nematode, Panagrolaimus davidi. J. Comp. Physiol. B, 170: 321–327 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003600000106

[23] Womersley, C. Z., Higa, L. M. (1998): Trehalose: its role in the anhydrobiotic survival of Ditylenchus myceliophagus. Nematologica, 44: 269–291 http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/005425998X00044

[24] Żółtowska, K., Dmitryjuk, M., Demianowicz, W. (1998): Glycogen phosphorylase activity and glycogen concentration in developing eggs of Ascaris suum (Nematoda). Acta Biol. Crac. Zool., 40: 81–84

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.417
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.619

CiteScore 2016: 0.58

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.316
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.678

Target Group researchers in the field of human, veterinary medicine and natural science

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 72 72 21
PDF Downloads 5 5 2