The tribe Scrophularieae (Scrophulariaceae): A Review of Phylogenetic Studies

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Molecular data have been increasingly used to study the phylogenetic relationships among many taxa, including scrophs. Sometimes they have provided phylogenetic reconstructions that are in conflict with morphological data leading to a re-evaluation of long-standing evolutionary hypotheses. In this paper, we review reports of the recent knowledge of the phylogenetic relationships within Scrophularieae (2011–2017). The results of these analyses led to the following conclusions. (1) Species of Scrophularia have undergone one or more Miocene migration events occurred from eastern Asia to the North America with subsequent long dispersal and diversification in three main directions. (2) Allopolyploid and aneuploid hybrid speciation between Scrophularia species can occur, so hybridization and polyploidy have an important role for history of diversification. (3) The ancestral staminode type for the genus Scrophularia seems to be a large staminode. (4) Monophyly of the genus Verbascum with respect to the genus Scrophularia is strongly supported. (5) Oreosolen, is not monophyletic, because all accessions of Oreosolen were nested within Scrophularia. We discuss methods of data collection and analysis, and we describe the areas of conflict and agreement between molecular phylogenies.

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