The Festuco-Brometea Grasslands on Sandstone and Marl-Clay-Sandstone Substrata in Tuscany (Northern-Central Italy)

Open access

Abstract

The grasslands dominated by Bromus erectus and/or Brachypodium rupestre cover large areas on sandstone and marl-clay-sandstone substrata (limestone is excluded), of the Apennines and pre-Apennines between Pistoia and Arezzo provinces (Tuscany, Central Italy). Our investigation was focused on to 71 unpublished releves and 45 literature releves from Tuscany and surrounding areas, reporting the original releves of Astragalo monspessulani-Brometum erecti, Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti and Ononido masquillerii-Brometum erecti. The releves were submitted to exploratory multivariate analysis, allowing to detect nine distinct groups. Their consistence was verified by mean of NMDS against Ellenberg/Pignatti indicator values, and CCA constrained against chorotypes and growth forms. Diagnostic species of the definitive groups resulting from the analysis were chosen according to species fidelity, based on the φ coefficient of association. The analysis splits the data set in two main subclusters; the first one (A) includes few releves of low altitude, thermophilous conenoses, interpreted as a transition between the submediterranean aspects of Festuco-Brometea class and other Mediterranean herbaceous and shrubby classes; the second subcluster (B) includes most of the data set and can be clearly subdivided in pioneering, mesoxerophilous communities (B1 and B2a groups) and mesophilous communities (B2b group). The releves of clusters B1 and B2a are referred to Coronillo minimae-Astragaletum monspessulanii association and to three other groups: Plantago argentea-Carex caryophyllea communities, Tragopogon samaritani-Bromus erectus communities, Festuco trachyphyllae-Brometum erecti ass. nova. The mesophilous group (B2b) includes the original Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti and Ononido masquillerii-Brometum erecti releves, together with a slightly differentiated community; due to the non-relevant differences between these grassland types from floristic, ecological and chorological perspectives, we propose herewith to treat them as three subassociations of Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti (typicum, ononidetosum masquillerii and linetosum cathartici). Post-cultural grasslands in human-disturbed areas were also detected. All these communities can be attributed to Polygalo mediterraneae-Bromenion erecti suballiance (Bromion alliance), even if a clear subdivision between the mesoxerophilous pioneer aspects and the more mesophilous and evolved ones can be noted.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Angiolini C. Riccucci C. & De Dominicis V. 2003: Grasslands of the order Brometalia erecti Br.-Bl. 1936 on Antiapennine calcareous massifs in central-southern Tuscany (central Italy). Lazaroa 24: 61−8.

  • Angiolini C. Foggi B. Viciani D. & Gabellini A. 2007: Acidophytic shrublands in the northwest of the Italian peninsula: Ecology chorology and syntaxonomy. Plant Biosystems 141: 134−163.

  • Angiolini C. Gabellini A. Frignani F. Giallonardo T. & De dominicis V. 2009: Contributo alla conoscenza della vegetazione della Riserva naturale provinciale “Monte Penna” (Grosseto Toscana meridionale). Atti Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali Memorie Serie B 115 (2008): 1−20

  • Arrigoni P.V. 2003: Flora e vegetazione del Colle di Monsummano in Toscana. Parlatorea 6: 5−47.

  • Arrigoni P.V. & Bartolini L. 1997: Documenti per la carta della vegetazione della Calvana di Prato in Toscana. Parlatorea 2: 101−123.

  • Arrigoni P.V. Foggi B. Bechi N. & Ricceri C. 1997: Documenti per la carta della vegetazione del Monte Morello (Provincia di Firenze).Parlatorea 2: 73−100.

  • Arrigoni P.V. Ricceri C. & Mazzanti A. 1983: La vegetazione serpentinicola del Monte Ferrato di Prato in Toscana. Arti graf. Prioreschi Catena di Quarrata Pistoia 27 pp.

  • Arrigoni P. V. 1983: Aspetti corologici della flora sarda. Lavori della Societa Italiana di Biogeografia n.s. 8: 81−109.

  • Arrigoni P . V . 1996: A classification of plant growth form aplicable to the Floras and Vegetation types of Italy. Webbia 50(2): 193−203.

  • Barcella M. & Assini S. 2013: Montane grasslands in the northern Apennine: syntaxonomy syncorology and synecology. Hacquetia (in press).

  • Becker T. Schmiege C. Bergmeier E. Dengler J. & Nowak B. 2012: Nutrient-poor grasslands on siliceous soil in the lower Aar valley (Middle Hesse Germany) - Neglected vegetation types in the intersection range of four classes.Tuexenia 32: 281−318.

  • Biondi E. Allegrezza M. Guitian J. & Taffetani F. 1988: La vegetazione dei calanchi di Sasso Simone e Simoncello (Appennino toscomarchigiano).

  • Braun-Blanquetia 2: 105−115.

  • Biondi E. Allegrezza M. & Zuccarello V. 2005: Syntaxonomic revision of the Apennine grasslands belonging to Brometalia erecti and an analysis of their relationships with the xerophilous vegetation of Rosmarinetea officinalis (Italy).Phytocoenologia 35(1): 129−164.

  • Biondi E. Ballelli S. Allegrezza M. & Zuccarello V. 1995: La vegetazione dell’ordine Brometalia erecti Br.-Bl. 1936 nell’Appennino (Italia).Fitosociologia 30: 3−45.

  • Biondi E. Ballelli S. & Principi D. 1985: Sur les pelouses seches des substrats marneux- arenaces de l’Apennin septentrional (Italie). Documents Phytosociologiques N.S. 9: 351−357.Camerino.

  • Biondi E. Ballelli S. Allegrezza M. Guitian J. & Taffetani F. 1986: Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti ass. nova dei settori marnoso-arenacei dell’Appennino centrale. Documents Phytosociologiques N.S. 10 (2): 117−126.Camerino.

  • Biondi E. & Galdenzi D. 2012: Phytosociological analysis of the grasslands of Montagna dei Fiori (central Italy) and syntaxonomic review of the class Festuco-Brometea in the Apennine.Plant Sociology 49(1): 91−112.

  • Biondi E. 2005: Vegetation and priority habitats.In: Blasi C. Boitani L. La Posta S. Manes F. & Marchetti M. Biodiversity in Italy.Palombi ed. Roma 202−219 pp.

  • Braun-Blanquet J. 1932: Plant Sociology. Mac Graw Hill Book Company New York.

  • Braun-Blanquet J. 1964: Pflanzensoziologie.Springer Wien Carmignani L. & Lazzarotto A. (Coordinators) 2004: Carta Geologica della Toscana/Geological Map of Tuscany (Italy) 1 : 250000. Regione Toscana Direzione delle Politiche Territoriali e Ambientali-Servizio Geologico.

  • Casini S. & De Dominicis V. 1999: Memoria illustrativa per la carta della vegetazione del Chianti (scala 1:50.000). Studio fitosociologico.Parlatorea 3: 79−106.

  • Castelli M. 1995: Brometi del versante padano dell’Appennino Ligure-Piemontese (Italia).Fitosociologia 30: 51−90.

  • Castelli M. Biondi E. & Ballelli S. 2001: La vegetazione erbacea arbustiva e preforestale del piano montano dell’Appennino Piemontese (Valli Borbera e Curone - Italia). Fitosociologia 38(1): 125−151.

  • Chytry M. Tichy L. Holt J. & Botta-Dukat Z. 2002: Determination of diagnostic species with statistical fidelity measures. Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 79−90.

  • Chytry M. Hoffmann A. & Novak J. 2007: Suche travniky (Festuco-Brometea) [Dry grasslands (Festuco-Brometea)]. - In: Chytry M. (ed.) Vegetace Česke republiky. 1. Travinna a keřičkova vegetace [Vegetation of the Czech Republic. 1. Grassland and heathland vegetation] 371-497 pp. Academia Praha.

  • Chytry M. (ed.) 2007: Vegetace Česke republiky.1. Travinna a keřičkova vegetace [Vegetation of the Czech Republic. 1. Grassland and heathland vegetation] Academia Praha CZ.

  • Conti F. Abbate G. Alessandrini A. & Blasi C. 2005: An annotated Checklist of the Italian Vascular Flora. Min. Ambiente e Tutela Territ. Dip. Biol. Veg. Univ. “La Sapienza”.Palombi Ed. Roma.

  • Conti F. Alessandrini A. Bacchetta G. Banfi E. Barberis G. Bartolucci F. Bernardo L. Bonacquisti S. Bouvet D. Bovio M. Brusa G. Del Guacchio E. Foggi B. Frattini S. Galasso G. Gallo L. Gangale C. Gottschlich G. Grunanger P. Gubellini L. Iriti G. Lucarini D. Marchetti D. Moraldo B. Peruzzi L. Poldini L. Prosser F. Raffaelli M. Santangelo A. Scassellati E. Scortegagna S. Selvi F. Soldano A. Tinti D. Ubaldi D. Uzunov D. & Vidali M. 2007: Integrazioni alla checklist della flora vascolare italiana.Natura Vicentina 10 (2006): 5−74.

  • De Dominicis V. Angiolini C. & Gabellini A. 2010: Le serie di vegetazione della regione Toscana.In: Blasi C. (ed.) La vegetazione d’Italia 204−229 pp. Palombi and Partner s.r.l. Roma.

  • De Dominicis V. Gabellini A. Viciani D. Morrocchi D. & Gonnelli V. 2002: Contributo alla conoscenza vegetazionale della Riserva Naturale del Sasso di Simone (Toscana orientale).Atti Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali Memorie Serie B 108 (2001): 7−26.

  • Dengler J. Berg C. Eisenberg M. Isermann M. Jansen F. Koska I. Lobel S. Manthey M. Pazolt J. Spangenberg A. Timmermann T. & Wollert H. 2003: New descriptions and typifications of syntaxa within the project ‘Plant communities of Mecklenburg- Vorpommern and their vulnerability’. Part I - Feddes Repertorium 114: 587−631.

  • Dengler J. Berg C. & Jansen F. 2005: New ideas for modern phytosociological monographs.Annali di Botanica Roma N. S. 5: 193−210.

  • Dengler J. Chytry M. & Ewald J. 2008: Phytosociology.In: Jorgensen S. E. & Fath B. D. (eds.): Encyclopedia of ecology. Elsevier Oxford 2767−2779 pp.

  • Dengler J. Rūsiņa S. Boch S. Bruun H. H. Diekmann M. Diersen K. Dolnik C. Dupre C. Golub V. B. Grytnes J.-A. Helm A. Ingerpuu N. Lobel S. Partel M. Rašomavičius V. Tyler G. Znamenskiy S. R. & Zobel M. 2006: Working group on dry grasslands in the Nordic and Baltic region-Outline of the project and first results for the class Festuco-Brometea. Annali di Botanica Roma N.S. 6: 1-28.

  • Dengler J. 2004: Klasse: Festuco-Brometea Br.-Bl. & Tx. ex Klika & Hadač 1944 - Basiphile Magerrasen und Steppen im Bereich der submeridionalen und temperaten Zone - In: Berg C. Dengler J. Abdank A. & Isermann M. (eds.): Die Pflanzengesellschaften Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns und ihre Gefahrdung - Textband.Weissdorn Jena 327−335 pp.

  • Di Pietro R. 2011: New dry grassland associations from the Ausoni-Aurunci mountains (Central Italy) - Syntaxonomical updating and discussion on higher rank syntax. Hacquetia 10(2): 183−231.

  • Ellenberg H. Weber H.E. Dull R. Wirth V. & Werner W. 2001: Zeigerwerte von Pflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Scripta Geobotanica 18 3. 262 pp.

  • Foggi B. & Venturi E. 2009: Gli habitat meritevoli di conservazione della provincia di Prato.In: Fancelli E. (a cura di) 2009 Biodiversita in Provincia di Prato. Vol. 4: Habitat. Editrice Le Balze & Effigi Edizioni 227 pp.

  • Gehu J.M. 1988: L’analyse symphytosociologique et geosymphytosociologique de l’espace.Theorie et metodologie. Colloques Phytosociologiques 17: 11−46.

  • Gennai M. 2011: Il paesaggio vegetale della provincia di Pistoia. Tesi di Dottorato in Biosistematica ed Ecologia vegetale Scuola di Dottorato “Ubaldo Montelatici” XXIV ciclo Universita degli Studi di Firenze.

  • Hammer O. Harper D.A.T. & Ryan P.D. 2001: PAST Paleontological Satistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis http://palaeo_electronica.org.

  • Korneck D. 1974: Xerothermvegetation von Rheinland- Pfalz und Nachbargebieten. Schriftenreihe fur Vegetationskunde 7: 1−196.

  • Lastrucci L. Foggi B. Raffaelli M. Benesperi R. Gonnelli V. Zinetti F. Principi G. & Cavazzoni D. 2009: Contributo alla conoscenza naturalistica dell’Area Naturale Protetta di Interesse Locale (ANPIL) “Serpentine di Pieve S. Stefano (Arezzo Toscana). Bollettino del Museo Regio di Scienze Naturali Torino 27(1): 101−151.

  • Mucina L. & Kolbek J. 1993: Festuco-Brometea - In: Mucina L. Grabherr G. & Ellmauer T. (eds.). Die Pflanzengesellschaften Osterreichs - Teil I: Anthropogene Vegetation. Fischer Jena 420−492 pp.

  • Mucina L. Dengler J. Bergmeier E. Čarni A. Dimopoulos P. Jahn R. & Matevski V. 2009: New and validated high-rank syntax from Europe.Lazaroa 30: 267−276.

  • Oberdorfer E. 1978: Suddeutsche Pflanzengesellschaften - Teil II. G. Fischer Verlag. - Stuttgart New York. 355 pp.

  • Oberdorfer E. & Hofmann A. 1967: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Vegetation des Nordapennin.Beitr. Naturk. Forsch. Sudwestdeutschl. 26(1): 83−139.

  • Pignatti S. 2005: Valori di bioindicazione delle piante vascolari della Flora d’Italia. (Bioindicator values of vascular plants of the Flora of Italy). Braun-Blanquetia 39: 3-95.

  • Podani J. 2002: SYNTAX V. Scientia Publishing Budapest.

  • Rivas-Martinez S. Diaz T. E. Fernandez-Gonzalez F. Izco J. Loidi J. Lousa M. & Penas A. 2002: Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001. Itinera Geobotanica 15 (1-2): 5-922.

  • Rivas-Martinez S. Diaz T.E. Prieto J.A. Loidi J. & Penas A. 1991: Festuco hystricis-Ononidetea striatae y Rsomarinetea officinalis clases de vegetacion indipendientes. Itinera Geobotanica 5: 505−516.

  • Royer J.M. 1991: Synthese eurosiberienne phytosociologique et phytogeographique des Festuco- Brometea. Dissertationes Botanicae 178: 1−296.

  • Takhtajan A. 1986: Floristic Regions of the World. Transl. by T.J. Crovello and ed. by A. Cronquist. University of California Press ISBN 0520040279 Berkeley.

  • Terzi M. 2011: Nomenclatural revision of the order Scorzonero-Chrysopogonetalia. Folia Geobotanica 46: 411−444.

  • Tichy L. 2002: JUICE software for vegetation classification. Journal Vegetation of Sciences 13: 451−453. (www.sci.muni.cz/botany/juice)

  • Viciani D. & Gabellini A. 2006: La vegetazione dell’Alpe di Catenaia (Arezzo Toscana) ed i suoi aspetti di interesse botanico- conservazionistico.Webbia 61(1): 167−191.

  • Viciani D. & Gabellini A. 2013: Contributo alla conoscenza della vegetazione della Foresta Regionale “Monte Arsenti - Poggi di Prata” (Toscana centro-meridionale). Informatore Botanico Italiano 45 (1) (in press).

  • Viciani D. Foggi B. Gabellini A. & Rocchini D. 2002a: Contributo alla conoscenza delle praterie su substrati ultramafici dell’Alta Valtiberina (Toscana orientale Italia). Fitosociologia 39 (1): 127−134.

  • Viciani D. Gabellini A. Gonnelli V. & De Dominicis V. 2002b: La vegetazione della Riserva Naturale Alpe della Luna (Arezzo Toscana) ed i suoi aspetti di interesse botanico-conservazionistico.Webbia 57 (1): 153−170.

  • Viciani D. Gabellini A. Gonnelli V. & De Dominicis V. 2004: La vegetazione della Riserva Naturale Alta Valle del Tevere-Monte Nero (Arezzo Toscana) ed i suoi aspetti di interesse botanico-conservazionistico. Atti Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali Memorie Serie B 109 (2002): 11−25.

  • Weber H.E. Moravec J. & Theurillat J.-P. 2000: International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature.Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 739−768.

  • Zanotti A.L. Ubaldi D. & Puppi G. 1995: Ricerche sulla vegetazione dei prati aridi e semiaridi nel Bolognese e in Romagna. Archivio Geobotanico 1: 91−100.

  • Zanotti A.L. Ubaldi D. Puppi G. & Sirotti M. 1998: Osservazioni fitosociologiche sulle praterie montane dell’area del Monte Nero (Appennino Ligure-Emiliano). Archivio Geobotanico 4 (2): 181−192).

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 1.28

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.344
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.971

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 266 153 2
PDF Downloads 113 74 0