On Pain, Its stratification, and Its Alleged Indefinability / Über den Schmerz, seine Schichtung und seine vermeintliche Undefinierbarkeit

Open access

Summary

This paper develops a phenomenological approach to the concept of pain, which highlights the main presuppositions that underlie pain research undertaken both in the natural and in the sociohistorical sciences. My argument is composed of four steps: (1) only if pain is a stratified experience can it become a legitimate theme in both natural and sociohistorical sciences; (2) the phenomenological method is supremely well suited to disclose the different strata of pain experience; (3) the phenomenological account offered here identifies three fundamental levels that make up the texture of pain experience: pain can be conceived as a prereflective experience, as an object of affective reflection, or as an object of cognitive reflection; and (4) such a stratified account clarifies how pain can be a subject matter in the natural and sociohistorical sciences. Arguably, the natural and sociohistorical sciences address pain at different levels of its manifestation. While the natural sciences address pain as an object of cognitive reflection, sociohistorical sciences first and foremost deal with pain as a prereflective experience and as an object of affective reflection.

References

  • Bates, M. S. (1996). Biocultural Dimensions of Chronic Pain: Implications for Treatment of Multiethnic Populations. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

  • Brentano, Franz. (1907). Untersuchungen zur Sinnespsychologie. Leipzig: Verlag von Duncker & Humblot.

  • Brentano, F. (1968). Vom sinnlichen und noetischen Bewusstsein. (O. Kraus. Ed.). Leipzig: Meiner Verlag.

  • Cambier, J. (1993). A Modern View: Pain Today. In R. Rey (Ed.), The History of Pain (331-337). (L. E. Wallace, J.A. Cadden & S.W. Cadden, Trans.). Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

  • Degenaar, J. J. (1979). Some Philosophical Considerations on Pain. Pain 7, 281-304.10.1016/0304-3959(79)90085-X

  • Edwards, R. et al. (2001). Ethnic Differences in Pain Tolerance: Clinical Implications in a Chronic Pain Population. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 316-323.10.1097/00006842-200103000-00018

  • Eich, E., Rodkin, I. A., Reeves, J. L., & Chawla, A. R. (2003). Questions Concerning Pain. In D. Kahneman (Ed.), Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology (155-168). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

  • Encadela, J. A. (1993). Social Sciences and the Study of Pain Since Zborowski: A Need for A New Agenda. Social Science & Medicine 36 (6), 783-791.10.1016/0277-9536(93)90039-7

  • Grüny, C. (2004). Zerstörte Erfahrung. Eine Phänomenologie des Schmerzes. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.

  • Husserl, E. (1952). Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie. Zweites Buch: Phänomenologische Untersuchungen zur Konstitution. M. Biemel (Ed.). Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff.

  • Husserl, E. (1984). Logische Untersuchungen. Zweiter Teil. Untersuchungen zur Phänomenologie und Theorie der Erkenntnis. U. Panzer (Ed.). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.10.1007/978-94-009-6068-8

  • Jünger, E. (2008). On Pain. Trans. (D. C. Durst, Trans.). New York: Telos Press Publishing.

  • Kleinman, A. (1988). The Illness Narratives: Suffering, Healing, and the Human Condition. New York: Basic Books.

  • Lawlis, G. G., Achterberg, J., Kenner, L., & Kopetz, K. (1984). Ethnic and Sex Differences in Response to Clinical and Induced Pain in Chronic Spinal Pain Patients. Spine 9 (7), 751-754.10.1097/00007632-198410000-00017

  • Leder, D. (1984). Toward A Phenomenology of Pain. Review of Existential Psychology & Psychiatry, 19, 255-266.

  • Leder, D. (1990). The Absent Body. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Lewis, T. (1942). Pain. New York: McMillan Company.

  • Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of Perception. (C. Smith., Trans.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

  • Merleau-Ponty, M. (1963). The Structure of Behavior. (A. Fisher, Trans.). Boston: Beacon Press.

  • Merskey, H. (1964). An Investigation of Pain in Psychological Illness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Merskey, H. (1991). The Definition of Pain. European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 6 (4), 153-159.

  • Melzack, R. & Wall, P. (1982). The Challenge of Pain. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

  • Merskey, H. & Bogduk, N. (eds.) (1994). Classification of Chronic Pain: Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definitions of Pain Terms, Second Edition. Seattle: IASP Press.

  • Morris, D. B. (1993). The Culture of Pain. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Nietzsche, F. (1969). On the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo. (W. Kaufmann, Trans.). New York: Vintage Books.

  • Ohnuki-Tierney, E. (1984). Illness and Culture in Contemporary Japan: An Anthropological View. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511621772

  • Rey, R. (1993). The History of Pain. (L. E. Wallace, J. A. Cadden, & S. W. Cadden, Trans.). Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

  • Sartre, J.-P. (1956). Being and Nothingness. (H. Barnes, Trans.). New York: Washington Square Press.

  • Scheler, M. (1963). Schriften zur Soziologie und Weltanschauungslehre (Gesammelte Werke, Bd. 6). Bern: Francke Verlag.

  • Scheler, M. (1976). Späte Schriften. Bern: Francke Verlag.

  • De Haro, A. S. (2010). Is Pain an Intentional Experience? Phenomenology 2010, 5 (2), 386-395.

  • De Haro, A. S. (2012). New and Old Approaches to the Phenomenology of Pain. Studia Phenomenologica, 12, 227-237.10.7761/SP.12.227

  • Stein, E. (2008). Zum Problem der Einfühlung (Gesamtausgabe, Bd. 5). Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder.

  • Stumpf, C. (1907). Über Gefühlsempfindungen. Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane 44, 1-49.

  • Stumpf, C. (1916). Apologie der Gefühlsempfindungen. Zeitschrift für Psychologie 75, 104-140.

  • Zborowski, M. (1969). People in Pain. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gestalt Theory

An International Multidisciplinary Journal

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 9 9 9
PDF Downloads 2 2 2