Evolutionary age peculiarities of adaptation of highly qualified athletes

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Abstract

In a series of studies on the adaptation processes of the main body systems of highly skilled male and female athletes in the range of 16-46 years old using immunological biochemical, hematological, eographical, spirometric, gasometric, anthropometric and ergometric methods and load testing established the physiological patterns of formation of involutive-age-related changes in the functional state of athletes of the second adult age. In the age range of 37-46 years old relative to the range of 16-36 years old: changes in the morphometric parameters of the physical status are determined, causing a decrease in the integrated bioenergy indicators; the intensive formation of metabolic factors of fatigue was established at a low-intensity threshold mode of work – aerobic-anaerobic; high intensity of non-specific adaptation processes is shown; revealed features of urgent responses of the main adaptation systems (hormone-metabolic, autonomic nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory) at the level of threshold operation modes. Highly qualified female athletes of 37-45 years old have an anovulatory character of the menstrual cycle, during which chronobiological mechanisms of adaptation processes are studied and systematized, consisting in the features of regulatory nervous effects on heart rate, hemodynamic and ventilatory functions. The revealed changes in adaptation processes in athletes of the second adult age can be used as the basis of the analytical base for predicting the functionality of elite and professional athletes of late periods of ontogenesis.

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