Reclamation Of Plant Wastes (Straw) And Obtaining (Nano) Chips With Bactericidal Properties Based On Them

Dedicated to the bright memory of professor I. N. Ruban.

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Abstract

Rape, camelina, wheat and Jerusalem artichoke vegetable wastes (straw) as annually renewable raw materials were processed into activated carbons, which were modified with silver nanoparticles for carbonaceous sorbents to acquire specific properties, since carbonaceous sorbents are usually widely used in the food industry, agriculture, medicine and other fields of human activity. The technology to obtain active carbons from agricultural crop residues has been developed, active carbon physico-chemical and adsorption properties, textural characteristics have been studied, new functional carbon (nano) materials with antibacterial activity containing (nano) particles of silver have been obtained, their influence within (nano) chip composition on rape crop growth, development and yield has been studied. In the conducted field tests, the highest activity was noted when using the (nano) chip whose structure included RAC - camelina and silver nanoparticles. Besides, when nano chips are used for seed treatment, the yield increase makes up 11.6 % for nanoparticles containing Ag, for plant active carbons (PAC) (rape) with Ag this index makes up 28.1 %, for RAC (Camelina) with Ag it makes up 55.8 % (compared to the control variant), which can be explained by the differences in the sorption characteristics of the studied radio activated carbons. Our results and the previous studies of other authors can prove the fact that silver nanoparticles (including those being a part of (nano) chips) “get” into the biochemical processes and have a pronounced phytostimulating effect on plants, which was especially obvious when suppressing the activity of plant pathogenic microflora by silver nanoparticles.

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