Zonation of deposits of hard coals of different porosity in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

Open access

Abstract

The article presents the results of tests of porosity of the Upper-Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) hard coals. The porosity was determined for various lithotypes of hard coal, collected in different areas of the Upper-Silesian Coal Basin. Samples of hard coal were collected in 60 seams of 16 coal mines, from the depth of approximately between 350 and 1200 m. There are also presented differences in values of open porosity of coal depending on the depth of occurrence, as well as chronostratigraphic and tectonic correlation of a seam. Uniaxial compression strength of the tested coals falls in the strength class from very low to very high (from 8.1 to 51.5 MPa), open porosity is 0.68–12.5% and total porosity is 3.29–17.45%. With an increase in depth, in general, open porosity of coals decreases. There is an apparent decrease in open porosity correlated with the age of hard coals. It was observed that the lower and upper limits of open porosity ranges of variability shift towards lower values the older the coals are, from the Łaziskie Beds to the Jaklowieckie Beds. The older the coals the greater the average drop in the share of open porosity in total porosity from 60% for the youngest coals to merely several per cent for the oldest ones. The highest values of total porosity (over 10%) were observed in the youngest coals (Cracow sandstone series and siltstone series). Older coals reached more diversified values of total porosity (3.29–17.45%). Based on the conducted tests, zones correlated with tectonics of the basin and with deposition of lithostratigraphic beds of specific age, where values of porosity of hard coals differ, were determined in the area of the USCB. However, in spite of their correlation to a structural unit, the coals demonstrated a decrease in open porosity with an increase in their geologic age. Thus, there is an apparent influence of the deposition depth of coal within a given structural unit on open porosity following the age of coal, i.e. correlation to an older and older chronostratigraphic unit.

Porosity tests of hard coal are published in scientific journals yet, most often, there is no information on the type of porosity. Such detailed characteristics of open porosity for coal of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, as in the article, have not been prepared yet, making our research novel. Such broad tests of porosity of hard coals, correlated with their strength and referring to the deposition depth of seams as well as a correlation to lithostratigraphic units within individual structural units in the USCB, had not been conducted yet. We believe it is a sufficient argument to start detailed research into the open porosity of hard coals. The results of the tests are important from both the research and practical points of view. Knowledge of coal porosity is indispensable in solving many engineering problems of geological engineering, mining geomechanics and mining e.g.: assessing behaviour of coal when it is mined and processed, assessing the possibility of capturing methane, which makes up over 90% of natural gas, from coal in the areas of methane-rich deposits; the possibility of storing various substances in abandoned hard coal mining areas (e.g. CO2 storage within the structure of coal), assessing risk of occurrence of certain natural hazards resulting from mining deposits (e.g. coal and rocks outburst hazard), as well as assessing the possibility of applying unconventional methods of mining hard coal deposits (e.g. underground coal gasification).

Baran, P. and Zarebska, K. 2015. Estimating the limiting absolute sorption of carbon dioxide by coal for coal-bed storage of carbon dioxide. International Journal of Oil Gas and Coal Technology Vol. 10, Is. 2, pp. 179–193.

Bukowska, M. 2012. Skłonność górotworu do tąpań – geologiczne i geomechaniczne metody badań (Rock mass susceptibility to bumps – geological and geomechanical test methods). Wydawnictwo GIG. Katowice (in Polish).

Bukowska i in. 2012 – Bukowska, M., Sanetra, U. and Wadas, M. 2012. Chronostratigraphic and depth variability of porosity and strength of hard coals of Upper Silesian Basin. Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 28(4), pp. 151–166 (in Polish).

Chodyniecka i in. 1993 – Chodyniecka, L., Gabzdyl, W. and Kapuściński, T. 1993. Mineralogia i petrografia dla górników (Mineralogy and petrography for miners). Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej. Gliwice.

Ceglarska-Stefańska i in. 1995 – Ceglarska-Stefańska, G., Stachurski, J. and Vogt E. 1995. Porosity of the Polish Hard Coals. Archives of Mining Sciences 40(3).

Czapliński, A. red. 1994. Węgiel kamienny (Hard coal). Wydawnictwo AGH, Kraków (in Polish).

Dutka et al. 2013 – Dutka, B., Kudasik, M., Pokryszka, Z., Skoczylas, N., Topolnicki, J. and Wierzbicki, M. 2013. Balance of CO2/CH4 exchange sorption in a coal briquette. Fuel Processing Technology Vol. 106, pp. 95–101.

Gabzdyl, W. 1989. Geologia węgla (Hard coal geology). Skrypt Pol. Śl. nr 1427/2 (in Polish).

Jasieńko S. red. 1995. Chemia i fizyka węgla (Chemistry and physico of hard coal). Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej Wrocław, pp. 221–261.

Jureczka, J. and Kotas, A. 1995. Tektonogeneza Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego (Tectogeny of Upper Silesian Coal Basin). [W:] The carboniferous system in Poland. Zdanowski, A. i Żakowa, H. ed). Prace PIG Vol. CXLVIII, pp. 168–171 (in Polish).

Karacan, C.Ö. and Mitchell, G.D. 2003. Behavior and effect of different coal microlithotypes during gas transport for carbon dioxide sequestration into coal seams. International Journal of Coal Geology 53, pp. 201–217.

Kawęcka, J. 1988. Struktura porowata węgli kamiennych (Porous structure of hard coals). Zeszyty Naukowe AGH nr 1212, Chemia z. 8, pp. 69–88 (in Polish).

Kotas i in. 1988 – Kotas, A., Buła, Z. and Jureczka, J. 1988. Problematyka podziału litostratygraficznego górnośląskiej serii piaskowcowej karbonu Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego w świetle zasad kodeksu stratygraficznego (Problems of lithostratigraphic division of Upper Silesian Sandstone Series of Upper Silesian Carboniferous in the light of stratigraphic code). Materiały XI Symp. Geologia Formacji Węglonośnych Polski, Formacja Karbońska. Wydaw. AGH. Kraków (in Polish).

Krevelen, D.W. 1961. COAL. Typology – Chemistry – Physics – Construction. Elsevier Publishing Comany.

Lasoń, M. red. 1988. Sorpcja gazów i par a własności polskich węgli kamiennych jako układów dyspersyjnych (Sorption of gases and vapours properties of Polish hard coals as dispertion systems). Część I. Zeszyty Naukowe AGH, Chemia z. 8. Kraków (in Polish).

Ndaji et al. 1997 – Ndaji, F.H., Butterfild, I.M. and Thomas, K.M., 1997. Changes in the macromolecular structure of coals with pyrolysis temperature. Fuel 76, 169.

Nelson, J.R. 1983. Determination of molecular wight between crosslinks of coals from solvent – swelling studies. Fuel 62, 112.

Seewald, H. and Klein, I. 1985. Methansorption an Stainkohle und Kennzeichnung der Porenstrukture. Gluckauf – Forschungshefte, 47, 149 (in German).

Strugała, A. 2001. Porowatość węgli bitumicznych (Porosity of bituminous coals). Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 17(2), pp. 5–17 (in Polish).

Walker et al. 1988 – Walker, P.L., Verma, S.K., Rivera-Ultrilla, J. and Davis, A. 1988. Densities, Porosities and Surface Areas of Coal Maurals as Measured by their Interaction With Gases. Vapours and Liquids. Fuel 67, 1615.

Żyła, M. red. 2000. Układ węgiel kamienny-metan w aspekcie desorpcji i odzyskiwania metanu z gazów kopalnianych (Hard coal – methane system in the aspect of desorption and capturing methane from mine gases). Uczelniane Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Dydaktyczne AGH, Kraków.

PN-G-0403: 1997. Skały zwięzłe. Oznaczanie wytrzymałości na ściskanie z użyciem próbek foremnych (Determining compression strength using geometric solid figure samples) (in Polish).

PN-EN 1936: 2010. Metody badań kamienia naturalnego. Oznaczanie gęstości i gęstości objętościowej oraz całkowitej i otwartej porowatości (Methods of testing minerals. Determining density and bulk density, bulk and open porosity) (in Polish).

PN-G-04537:1998. Węgiel kamienny i brunatny. Oznaczanie gęstości rzeczywistej (Hard coal and lignite. Determining real density) (in Polish).

PN-82/G-04537. Węgiel kamienny I brunatny. Oznaczanie gęstości rzeczywistej i pozornej (Hard coal and lignite. Determining real density and bulk density) (in Polish).

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi

Mineral Resources Management; The Journal of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.481
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.568

CiteScore 2016: 0.76

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.408
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 1.397

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 91 91 16
PDF Downloads 24 24 6