Luminescence dating has been applied to volcanogenic outburst flood sediments (Takuma gravel bed) from Aso volcano, Japan, and tephric loess deposits overlying the gravel bed. The poly-mineral fine grains (4–11 μm) from loess deposits were measured with pulsed optically stimulated luminescence (pulsed OSL) and post-IR infrared stimulated luminescence (pIRIR) methods, whereas the Takuma gravel bed containing no quartz, was measured with IRSL and pIRIR methods using sand sized (150–200 μm) plagioclase. The loess deposits date back at least to ∼50 ka by consistent IRSL, pIRIR and pulsed OSL ages from the lowermost part of the loess deposits from one section. The ages obtained from the bottom part of the other loess section are not consistent each other. However, we consider that the pIRIR age (72±6 ka) which showed negligible anomalous fading is most reliable, and regard as a preliminary minimum age of the Takuma gravel bed. The equivalent doses (De) for the plagioclase from the Takuma gravel bed have a narrow distribution and the weighted mean of the three samples yield an age of 89±3 ka. This age is in agreement with the last caldera-forming eruption of Aso volcano (∼87 ka) and it is likely that the pIRIR signal has not been bleached before the deposition. IRSL dating without applying pIRIR using small aliquots was also conducted, however, the IRSL signal shows no clear evidence of an additional bleaching during the event of outburst flood from the caldera lake.
 Aoki K, 2008. Revised age and distribution of ca. 87 ka Aso-4 tephra based on new evidence from the northwest Pacific Ocean. Quaternary International 178(1): 100–118, DOI 10.1016/j.quaint.2007.02.005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2007.02.005
 Auclair M, Lamothe M and Huot S, 2003. Measurement of anomalous fading for feldspar IRSL using SAR. Radiation Measurements 37(4–5): 487–492, DOI 10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00018-0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00018-0
 Buylaert J-P, Jain M, Murray AS, Thomsen KJ, Thiel C and Sohbati R, 2012. A robust method for increasing the age range of feldspar IRSL dating. Boreas 41(3): 435–451, DOI 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2012.00248.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3885.2012.00248.x
 Denby PM, Bøtter-Jensen L, Murray AS, Thomsen KJ and Moska P, 2006. Application of pulsed OSL to the sepration of the luminescence components from a mixture of quartz/feldspar samples. Radiation Measurements 41(7–8): 774–779, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.05.017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.05.017
 Frechen M, Schweitzer U and Zander A, 1996. Improvements in sample preparation for the fine grain technique. Ancient TL 14: 15–17.
 Galbraith RF, Roberts RG, Laslett GM, Yoshida H and Olley JM, 1999. Optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz from Jinmium rock shelter, Northern Australia: part 1, experimental details and statistical models. Archaeometry 41(2): 339–364, DOI 10.1111/j.1475-4754.1999.tb00987.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.1999.tb00987.x
 Guérin G, Mercier N and Adamiec G, 2011. Doserate conversion factors: update. Ancient TL 29: 5–8.
 Hunter AG, 1998. Intracrustal Controls on the Coexistence of Tholeiitic and Calcalkaline Magma Series at Aso Volcano, SW Japan. Journal of Petrology 39(7): 1255–1284, DOI 10.1093/petroj/39.7.1255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/petroj/39.7.1255
 Huntley DJ and Lamothe M, 2001. Ubiquity of anomalous fading in K-feldspars and the measurement and correction for it in optical dating. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38(7): 1093–1106, DOI 10.1139/e01-013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/e01-013
 Jain M, Guralnik B and Andersen M, 2012. Stimulated luminescence emission from localized recombination in randomly distributed defects. Journal of Physics, Condensed Matter 24(38): 385402, DOI 10.1088/0953-8984/24/38/385402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/24/38/385402
 Jain M and Ankjærgaard C, 2011. Towards a non-fading signal in feldspar: Insight into charge transport and tunnelling from time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence. Radiation Measurements 46(3): 292–309, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2010.12.004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2010.12.004
 Kataoka KS, 2011. Geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of a gigantic outburst flood from Towada caldera after the 15 ka Towada-Hachinohe ignimbrite eruption, northeast Japan. Geomorphology 125(1): 11–26, DOI 10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.08.006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.08.006
 Kataoka KS and Miyabuchi Y, 2011. Outflow event from the Aso caldera lake. 2011 PERC Planetary Geology Field Symposium Guidebook for fieldtrip 37–40.
 Kataoka KS, Urabe A, Manville V and Kajiyama A, 2008. Breakout flood from an ignimbritedammed valley after the Numazawako eruption, northeast Japan. Geological Society of America Bulletin 120(9–10): 1233–1247, DOI 10.1130/B26159.1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/B26159.1
 Kreuzer S, Schmidt C, DeWitt R and Fuchs M, submitted. The avalue of polymineral fine grain samples measured with the post-IR IRSL protocol. Radiation Measurements.
 Lai ZP, Zöller L, Fuchs M and Brückner H, 2008. Alpha efficiency determination for OSL of quartz extracted from Chinese loess. Radiation Measurements 43(2–3): 767–770, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.01.022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.01.022
 Lapp T, Jain M, Ankjærgaard C and Pirtzel L, 2009. Development of pulsed stimulation and Photon Timer attachments to the Risø TL/OSL reader. Radiation Measurements 44(5–6): 571–575, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.01.012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.01.012
 Machida H and Arai F, 2003. Atlas of tephra in and around Japan (revised version). The University of Tokyo Press, 337p (in Japanese).
 Manville V, White JDL, Houghton BF and Wilson CJN, 1999. Paleohydrology and sedimentology of a post-1.8 ka breakout flood from intracaldera Lake Taupo, North Island, New Zealand. Geological Society of America Bulletin 111(10): 1435–1447, DOI 10.1130/0016-7606(1999)111<1435:PASOAP>2.3.CO;2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1999)111<1435:PASOAP>2.3.CO;2
 Morthekai P, Jain M, Murray AS, Thomsen K and Bøtter-Jensen L, 2008. Fading characteristics of martian analogue materials and the applicability of a correction procedure. Radiation Measurements 43(2–6): 672–678, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.02.019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.02.019
 Novothny A, Frechen M, Horvath E, Krbetchek M and Tsukamoto S, 2010. Infrared stimulated luminescence and radiofluorescence dating of aeolian sediments from Hungary. Quaternary Geochronology 5(2–3): 114–119, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2009.05.002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2009.05.002
 Ono K and Watanabe K, 1985. Geological map of Aso Volcano (1:50,000). Geological Map of Volcanoes 4. Geological Survey of Japan (in Japanese with English abstract).
 Ono K, Matsumoto Y, Miyahisa M, Teraoka Y and Kambe N, 1977. Geology of the Taketa district. Geological Survey of Japan, 145p (in Japanese with English abstract).
 Park C and Schmincke H-U, 1997. Lake formation and catastrophic dam burst during the Late Pleistocene Laacher See eruption (Germany). Naturwissenschaften 84: 521–525. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001140050438
 Prescott JR and Hutton JT, 1994. Cosmic ray contributions to dose rates for luminescence and ESR dating: Large depths and long-term time variations. Radiation Measurements 23(2–3): 497–500, DOI 10.1016/1350-4487(94)90086-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1350-4487(94)90086-8
 Sohbati R, Murray AS, Buylaert JP, Ortuño M, Cunha PP and Masana E, 2012. Luminescence dating of Pleistocene alluvial sediments affected by the Alhama de Murcia fault (eastern Betics, Spain) — a comparison between OSL, IRSL and post-IR IRSL ages. Boreas 41(2): 250–262, DOI 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2011.00230.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3885.2011.00230.x
 Suzuki T, 1995. Origin of so-called volcanic ash soil: thickness distribu-tion in and around central Japan. Bulletin of the Volcanological Society of Japan 40: 167–176 (in Japanese with English abstract).
 Thiel C, Buylaert J-P, Murray AS, Terhorst B, Hofer I, Tsukamoto S and Frechen M, 2011a. Luminescence dating of the Stratzing loess profile (Austria) — Testing the potential of an elevated temperature post-IR IRSL protocol. Quaternary International 234(1–2): 23–31, DOI 10.1016/j.quaint.2010.05.018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2010.05.018
 Thiel C, Buylaert J-P, Murray AS and Tsukamoto S, 2011b. On the applicability of post-IR IRSL dating to Japanese loess. Geochronometria 38(4): 369–378, DOI 10.2478/s13386-011-0043-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s13386-011-0043-4
 Thomsen KJ, Murray AS, Jain M, Bøtter-Jensen L, 2008. Laboratory fading rates of various luminescence signals from feldspar-rich sediment extracts. Radiation Measurements 43(9–10): 1474–1486, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.06.002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.06.002
 Tsukamoto S and Duller GAT, 2008. Anomalous fading of various luminescence signals from terrestrial basaltic samples as Martian analogues. Radiation Measurements 43(2–6): 721–725, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2007.10.025. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2007.10.025
 Tsukamoto S, Duller GAT, Wintle AG and Muhs D, 2011. Assessing the potential for luminescence dating of basalts. Quaternary Geochronology 6(1): 61–70, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2010.04.002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2010.04.002
 Tsukamoto S, Duller GAT, Wintle AG and Frechen M, 2010. Optical dating of a Japanese marker tephra using plagioclase. Quaternary Geochronology 5(2–3): 274–278, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2009.02.002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2009.02.002
 Tsukamoto S, Murray AS, Huot S, Watanuki T, Denby PM and Bøtter-Jensen L, 2007. Luminescence property of volcanic quartz and the use of red isothermal TL for dating tephras. Radiation Measurements 42(2): 190–197, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.07.008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.07.008
 Tsukamoto S, Rink WJ and Watanuki T, 2003. OSL of tephric loess and volcanic quartz in Japan and an alternative procedure for estimating De from a fast OSL component. Radiation Measurements 37(4–5): 459–465, DOI 10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00054-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00054-4
 Watanabe K, 1998. Shin-Kumamoto-Shishi (History of Kumamoto City), 103–108 (in Japanese).
 Watanabe K, Takada H, Okabe R and Nishida A, 1995. Stratigraphic relation between fluvial terrace deposits and widespread tephra beds in the middle reaches of the Shirakawa, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University. 44, 15–22 (in Japanese with English abstract).
 Watanuki T, Murray AS and Tsukamoto S, 2005. Quartz and polymineral luminescence dating of Japanese loess over the last 0.6 Ma: comparison with an independent chronology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 240(3–4): 774–789, DOI 10.1016/j.epsl.2005.09.027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.09.027
 Wada K, 1987. Minerals formed and mineral formation from volcanic ash by weathering. Chemical Geology 60(1–4): 17–28, DOI 10.1016/0009-2541(87)90106-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(87)90106-9
 Waythomas CF, Walder JS, McGimsey RG and Neal CA, 1996. A catastrophic flood caused by drainage of a caldera lake at Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska, and implications for volcanic hazards assessment. Geological Society of America Bulletin 108(7): 861–871, DOI 10.1130/0016-7606(1996)108〈0861:ACFCBD〉2.3.CO;2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1996)108<0861:ACFCBD>2.3.CO;2