Quartz is one of the minerals useful for electron spin resonance (ESR) dating. The E1′ center is one of well-known paramagnetic defects in crystalline quartz. This center has a unique feature; its intensity increases on heating. An electronic process to explain this increase was found to be controlled not only by the number of oxygen vacancies, which are the precursors, but also by the number of Al hole centers, which depend on the previous radiation dose and on the Al concentration.
The maximum intensity on heating is called the heat treated E1′ center, which has been posited to correspond to the number of oxygen vacancies in quartz and was found to be correlated with the ages of the host granites (Toyoda and Hattori, 2000). The experimental results on spin-spin relaxation times of the E1′ center indicate that external beta and gamma rays create oxygen vacancies in natural quartz rather than alpha or alpha recoil particles (Toyoda et al., 2005).
The correlation between the numbers of the oxygen vacancies in quartz and the ages of the host granite made it possible to distinguish the quartz of a sedimentary reservoir from another with different age of crystallization (Toyoda and Naruse, 2002). Quartz fractions extracted from leoss and atmospheric deposition in Japan and from sediments in Japan sea were analyzed by ESR. The temporal change of the contributions from two dust sources in China were discussed in the context of climate change.
 Clayton RN, Rex RW, Syers JK and Jackson ML, 1972. Oxygen isotope abundance in quartz from Pacific pelagic sediments. Journal of Geophysical Research 77(21): 3907–3915, DOI 10.1029/JC077i021p03907. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JC077i021p03907
 Feigl FJ, Fowler WB and Yip KL, 1974. Oxygen vacancy model for the E1′ centre in SiO2. Solid State Communications 14(3): 225–229, DOI 10.1016/0038-1098(74)90840-0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-1098(74)90840-0
 Grün R, 1989. ESR dating for the early Earth. Nature 338(6216): 543–544, DOI 10.1038/338543a0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/338543a0
 Hashimoto T, Koyanagi A, Yokosaka K, and Sotobayashi Y, 1986. Thermoluminescence color images from quartz of beach sands. Geochemical Journal 20(3): 111–118.
 Hashimoto T, Fujita, H and Hase H, 2001. Effects of atomic hydrogen and annealing temperatures on some radiation-induced phenomena in differently originated quartz. Radiation Measurements 33(4): 431–437, DOI 10.1016/S1350-4487(00)00140-2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(00)00140-2
 Ikeya M, 1993. New applications of electron spin resonance, dating, dosimetry, and microscopy. World Scientific, Singapore: 500pp.
 Ikeya M and Ishii H, 1989. Atomic Bomb and accident dosimetry with ESR: natural rocks and human tooth In-vivo spectrometer. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 40(10–12): 1021–1027, DOI 10.1016/0883-2889(89)90035-X.
 Ikeya M, Miki T and Tanaka K, 1982. Dating of fault by electron spin resonance on intrafault materials. Science 215(4538): 1392–1393, DOI 10.1126/science.215.4538.1392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.215.4538.1392
 Isozaki Y, 2009. Characterization of eolian dust and its sources in the Tarim Basin and their temporal changes during Plio-Pleistocene based on the ESR signal intensity and Crystallinity Index of quartz. PhD Thesis, University of Tokyo: 225pp.
 Jackson, ML, Levelt TWM, Syers JK, Rex RW, Clayton RN, Sherman GD and Uehara G, 1971. Geomorphological relationships of tropospherically-derived quartz in soils of the Hawaiin Islands. Proceedings — Soil Science Society of America 35, 515–525. http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1971.03615995003500040015x
 Jani MG, Bossoli RB and Halliburton LE, 1983. Further characterization of the E1′ center in crystalline SiO2. Physical Review B 27: 2285–2293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.27.2285
 Kita I, Taguchi S and Matsubaya O, 1985. Oxygen isotope fractionation between amorphous silica and water at 34–93°C. Nature 314(6006): 83–84, DOI 10.1038/314083a0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/314083a0
 Lee H-K and Schwarcz HP, 1994. Criteria for complete zeroing of ESR signals during faulting of the San Gabriel fault zone, southern California. Tectonophysics 235(4): 317–337, DOI10.1016/0040-1951(94)90192-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(94)90192-9
 Lee H-K and Yanga J-S, 2007. ESR dating of the Eupchon fault, South Korea. Quaternary Geochronology 2(1–4): 392–397, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2006.04.009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2006.04.009
 Mizota T and Inoue K, 1988. Oxygen isotope composition of eolian quartz in soils and sediments — its significance as a tracer of eolian components. Nengo Kagaku 28: 38–54 (in Japanese with English abstract).
 Mizota C, Faure K and Yamamoto M, 1996. Provenance of quartz in sedimentary mantles and laterites overlying bedrock in West Africa: evidence from oxygen isotopes. Geoderma 72(1–2): 65–74, DOI 10.1016/0016-7061(96)00014-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7061(96)00014-6
 Nagashima K, Tada R, Tani A, Toyoda S, Sun Y and Isozaki Y, 2007a. Contribution of Aeolian dust in Japan Sea sediments estimated from ESR signal intensity and crystallinity of quartz. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 8: Q02Q04, DOI 10.1029/2006GC001364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GC001364
 Nagashima K, Tada R, Matsui H, Irino T, Tani A and Toyoda S, 2007b. Orbital- and Millennial-scale variations in Asian dust transport path to the Japan Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 247(1–2): 144–161, DOI 10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.11.027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.11.027
 Naruse T, Ono Y, Hirakawa K, Okashita M and Ikeya M, 1997. Source areas of eolian dust quartz in East Asia: a tentative reconstruction of prevailing winds in Isotope Stage 2 using electron spin resonance. Geographical Review of Japan 70A-1: 15–27 (in Japanese with English abstract).
 Odom AL and Rink WJ, 1989. Natural accumulation of Shottky-Frenkel defects: implications for a quartz geochronometer. Geology 17(1): 55–58, DOI 10.1130/0091-7613 (1988)017<0055:NAOSFD>2.3.CO;2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1988)017<0055:NAOSFD>2.3.CO;2
 Ono Y, Naruse T, Ikeya M, Kohno H and Toyoda S, 1998. Origin and derived courses of eolian dust quartz deposited during marine isotope stage 2 in East Asia, suggested by ESR signal intensity. Global and Planetary Change 18(3–4): 129–135, DOI 10.1016/S0921-8181(98)00012-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8181(98)00012-5
 Palmer SE, Kyser TK and Hiatt EE, 2004. Provenance of the Proterozoic Thelon Basin, Nunavut, Canada, from detrital zircon geochronology and detrital quartz oxygen isotopes. Precambiran Research 129(1–2): 115–140, DOI 10.1016/j.precamres.2003.10.010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2003.10.010
 Porat N, Schwarcz HP, Valladas H, Bar-Yosef O and Vandermeersch B, 1994. Electron spin resonance dating of burned flint from Kebara cave, Israel. Geoarchaeology 9(5): 393–407, DOI 10.1002/gea.3340090504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gea.3340090504
 Rink WJ and Odom AL, 1991. Natural alpha recoil particle radiation and ionizing radiation sensitivities in quartz detected with EPR: implication for geochronometery. Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements 18(1–2): 163–173, DOI 10.1016/1359-0189(91)90108-T.
 Rudra JK and Fowler WB, 1987. Oxygen vacancy and the E1′ center in crystalline SiO2. Physical Review B 35(15): 8223–8230, DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB.35.8223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.35.8223
 Shimada A, 2008. Characteristics of ESR signals and thermoluminescence color images of quartz grains to study the provenance of sediments. Ph. D. Thesis, Nara Wemen’s University, Japan: 153pp (in Japanese).
 Shimoyama Y, 1986. ESR dating of volcanic rocks. Abstract for the First Workshop on ESR Applied Metrology, 47–48, IONICS, Tokyo (in Japanese).
 Silsbee RH, 1961. Electron spin resonance in neutron-irradiated quartz. Journal of Applied Physics 32(8): 1459–1462, DOI 10.1063/1.1728379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1728379
 Toyoda S, 1992. Production and decay characteristics of Paramagnetic defects in quartz: application to ESR dating. Ph. D. Thesis, Osaka University, Japan: 106pp.
 Toyoda S and Hattori M, 2000. Formation and decay of the E1′ center and of its precursor. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 52(5): 1351–1356, DOI 10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00094-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00094-4
 Toyoda S and Ikeya M, 1991. Thermal stabilities of paramagnetic defect and impurity centers in quartz: basis for ESR dating of thermal history. Geochemical Journal 25: 437–445.
 Toyoda S and Naruse T, 2002. Eolian dust from the Asian deserts to the Japanese Islands since the Last Glacial Maximum; the basis for the ESR method. Transactions, Japanese Geomorphological Union 23: 811–820.
 Toyoda S, Goff F, Ikeda S and Ikeya M, 1995. ESR dating of El Cajete and Battleship Rock Member of Valles Rhyolite, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 67(1–3): 29–40, DOI 10.1016/0377-0273(94)00093-V. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(94)00093-V
 Toyoda S, Rink WJ, Schwarcz HP and Ikeya M, 1996. Formation of E’1 precursors in quartz: applications to dosimetry and dating. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 47(11–12): 1393–1398, DOI 10.1016/S0969-8043(96)00142-X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(96)00142-X
 Toyoda S, Rink WJ, Yonezawa C and Kagami T, 2001. In-situ production of alpha particles and alpha recoil particles in quartz applied to ESR studies of oxygen vacancies. Quaternary Science Reviews 20(5–9): 1057–1061, DOI 10.1016/S0277-3791(00)00018-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-3791(00)00018-4
 Toyoda S and Schwarcz HP, 1997a. Counterfeit E1′ signal in quartz. Radiation Measurements 27(1): 59–66, DOI 10.1016/S1350-4487(96)00073-X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(96)00073-X
 Toyoda S and Schwarcz HP, 1997b. The hazard of the counterfeit E1′ signal in quartz to the ESR dating of fault movements. Quaternary Science Reviews 16(3–5): 483–486, DOI 10.1016/S0277-3791(96)00088-1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-3791(96)00088-1
 Toyoda S, Takeuchi D, Asai T, Komuro K and Horikawa Y, 2005. Spin-spin relaxation times of the E1′ center in quartz with and without irradiation: implications for the formation process of the oxygen vacancies in nature. Radiation Measurements 39(5): 503–508, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2004.09.002.
 Toyoda S, Tsukamoto S, Hameau S, Usui H and Suzuki T, 2006. Dating of Japanese Quaternary tephras by ESR and Luminescence methods. Quaternary Geochronology 1(4): 320–326, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2006.03.007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2006.03.007
 Usami T, Toyoda S, Bahadur H, Srivastava AK and Nishido H, 2009. Characterization of the E1′ center in quartz: Role of aluminum hole centers and oxygen vacancies. Physica B: Condensed Matter 404(20): 3819–3823, DOI 10.1016/j.physb.2009.07.075. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2009.07.075
 Wieser A and Regulla D, 1989. ESR dosimetry in the “Giga-rad” range. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 40(10–12): 911–913, DOI 10.1016/0883-2889(89)90016-6.
 Weeks RA and Nelson CM, 1960. Trapped electrons in irradiated quartz and silica: II. Electron spin resonance. Journal of American Ceramic Society 43(8): 399–404, DOI 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1960.tb13682.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1960.tb13682.x
 Yamamoto Y, Toyoda S, Nagasima K, Igarashi Y and Tada R, 2010. The grain size dependence of the E1′ center observed in quartz of atmospheric deposition at two Japanese cities. Geochronometria 37: 9–12, DOI 10.2478/v10003-010-0024-2. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10003-010-0024-2
 Yawata T and Hashimoto T, 2004. Identification of the volcanic quartz origins from dune sand using a single-grain RTL measurement. Quaternary Science Reviews 23(9–10): 1183–1186, DOI 10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.09.010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.09.010