Provenance study of detrital garnets and rutiles from basaltic pyroclastic rocks of Southern Slovakia (Western Carpathians)

Open access

Abstract

Detrital garnets and rutiles have been recovered from basaltic pyroclastic rocks in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin and characterized using electron probe microanalysis and imaging. All garnets are dominated by the almandine component, except for one sample dominated by spessartine. A total of three garnet groups have been distinguished according to the increased contents of grossular (Group I), pyrope (Group II) and spessartine components (Group III). Compositions of the group I and II garnets with fluctuating Ca- and relatively low Mg contents are consistent with low- to medium-grade metasediments and/or metabasites. Locally increased Mg contents could indicate higher P–T metamorphic overprint. The dominantly metamorphic origin of the Group I and II garnets (composed of >99 % of samples) is also corroborated by chlorite, tourmaline, staurolite, ilmenite and andalusite inclusions. Spessartine-rich garnets (Group III composed of <1 % of samples) could be genetically linked with granitoids. Detrital rutiles invariably plot within the field of metasediments metamorphosed under amphibolite-facies conditions. Possible proximal (subjacent basement sampled by ascending lava) or distal sources (catchment sediments from uplifted Central Carpathian basement) of heavy mineral assemblages are discussed.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Aubrecht R. Méres Š. Sýkora M. & Mikuš T. 2009: Provenance of the detrital garnets and spinels from the Albian sediments of the Czorstyn Unit (Pieniny Klippen Belt Western Carpathians Slovakia). Geol. Carpath. 60 463–483.

  • Aydar E. & Gourgaud A. 2002: Garnet-Bearing Basalts: An Example from Mt. Hasan Central Anatolia Turkey. Mineral. Petrol. 75 185–201.

  • Balogh K. Miháliková A. & Vass D. 1981: Radiometric dating of basalt in Southern and Central Slovakia. Záp. Karpaty Ser. Geol. 7 113–126.

  • Bónová K. 2005: Mineralogy petrology and P-T conditions of magma crystallization of the andesite bodies Maliniak and Lysá Stráž from Lysá Stráž – Oblík formation Eastern Slovakia. Miner. Slov. 37 503–512.

  • Bouloton J. & Paquette J.-L. 2014: In situ U–Pb zircon geochronology of Neogene garnet-bearing lavas from Slovakia (Carpatho–Pannonian region Central Europe). Lithos 184–187 17–26.

  • Brenan J.M. Shaw H.F. Phinney D.L. & Ryerson F.J. 1994: Rutile–aqueous fluid partitioning of Nb Ta Hf Zr U and Th: implications for high field strength element depletions in island-arc basalts. Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett. 128 327–339.

  • Bromiley G.D. & Hilairet N. 2005: Hydrogen and minor element incorporation in synthetic rutile. Mineral. Mag. 69 345–358.

  • Carruzzo S. Clarke D.B. Pelrine K.M. & MacDonald M.A. 2006: Texture composition and origin of rutile in the South Mountain Batholith Nova Scotia. Can. Mineral. 44 715–729.

  • Chen Z.Y. & Li Q.L. 2008: Zr-in-rutile thermometry in eclogite at Jinheqiao in the Dabie orogen and its geochemical implications. Chinese Sci. Bull. 53 768–776.

  • Coleman R.G. Lee D.E. Beatty L.B. & Brannock W.W. 1965: Eclogites and eclogites: their differences and similarities. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 76 483–508.

  • Dank V. & Fülöp J. (Eds.) 1990: Geological Structural map of Hungary. MAFI Budapest (in Hungarian).

  • Deer W.A. Howie R.A. & Zussman J. 1992: An introduction to the rock-forming minerals. 2nd Ed. Longmans Essex 1–696.

  • Deer W.A. Howie R.A. & Zussman J. 1997: Rock-forming minerals. Volume 1A. Orthosilicates. 2nd Ed. Longmans London 1–919.

  • Dobosi G. Fodor R.V. & Goldberg S.A. 1995: Late-Cenozoic alkali basalt magmatism in Northern Hungary and Slovakia: petrology source compositions and relationship to tectonics. Acta Vulcanol. 7 199–207.

  • Downes H. Pantó Gy. Póka T. Mattey D.P. & Greenwood P.B. 1995: Calc-alkaline volcanics of the Inner Carpathian arc Northern Hungary: new geochemical and oxygen isotopic results. Acta Vulcanol. 7 29–41.

  • Elečko M. Hraško L. & Konečný P. 2008: Refinement of continuation of crystalline complexes in the basement of neovolcanites (Southern Slovakia). Open-file report D. Štúr Inst. Geol. Bratislava 1–123.

  • Faryad S.W. 1990: Gneiss-amphibolite complex of Gemericum. Miner. Slov. 22 303–318 (in Slovak).

  • Faryad S.W. 1995: Determination of P–T conditions of metamorphism in the Spiš-Gemer Ore Mts. (Western Carpathians). Miner. Slov. 27 9–19 (in Slovak).

  • Faryad S.W. 1996: Petrology of amphibolites and gneisses from Branisko massif. Miner. Slov. 28 265–272 (in Slovak).

  • Faryad S.W. & Dianiška I. 1989: Garnets from granitoids. Geol. Zbor. Geol. Carpath. 40 715–734.

  • Faryad S.W. Ivan P. & Jacko S. 2005: Metamorphic petrology of metabasites from the Branisko and Čierna Hora Mountains (Western Carpathians Slovakia). Geol. Carpath. 56 3–16.

  • Ferry J.M. & Watson E.B. 2007: New thermodynamic models and revised calibration for the Ti-in-zircon and Zr-in-rutile thermometers. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 154 429–437.

  • Force E.R. 1980: The provenance of rutile. J. Sediment. Petrol. 50 485–488.

  • Force E.R. 1991: Geology of titanium-mineral deposits. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper 259 1–112.

  • Goldsmith R. & Force E.R. 1978: Distribution of rutile in metamorphic rocks and implications for placer deposits. Miner. Deposita 13 329–343.

  • Götze J. 1996: Genetic information of accessory minerals in clastic sediments. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. 1 101–118.

  • Graham J. & Morris R.C. 1973: Tungsten- and antimony-substituted rutile. Mineral. Mag. 39 470–473.

  • Harangi Sz. Downes H. Kósa L. Szabó Cs. Thirlwall M. F. Mason P.R.D. & Mattey D. 2001: Almandine garnet in calc-alkaline volcanic rocks of the Northern Pannonian Basin (Eastern-Central Europe): Geochemistry petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. J. Petrol. 42 1813–1843.

  • Hassan W.F. 1994: Geochemistry and mineralogy of Ta-Nb rutile from Peninsular Malaysia. J. Soc. Am. Earth Sci. 10 11–23.

  • Hovorka D. & Lukáčik E. 1972: Xenoliths in andesites of the Massifs Karanč Šiator (Southern Slovakia) and their geologic interpretation. Geol. Zborn. Geol. Carp. 23 297–303.

  • Hovorka D. & Méres Š. 1990: Clinopyroxene-garnet metabasites from the Tribeč Mts. (Central Slovakia). Miner. Slov. 22 533–538 (in Slovak).

  • Hovorka D. Méres Š. & Krištín J. 1987: Garnets from paragneisses of the central zone of the West Carpathians. Miner. Slov. 19 289–309.

  • Hovorka D. Méres Š. & Caňo F. 1992: Petrology of the garnet clinopyroxene metabasites from the Malá Fatra Mts. Miner. Slov. 24 45–52 (in Slovak).

  • Hurai V. Paquette J.-L. Huraiová M. & Konečný P. 2010: U–Th–Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite from syenite and pincinite xenoliths in Pliocene alkali basalts of the intra-Carpathian back-arc basin. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 198 275–287.

  • Hurai V. Paquette J.-L. Huraiová M. & Sabol M. 2012: U–Pb geo-chronology of zircons from fossiliferous sediments of the Hajnáčka I maar (Slovakia) — type locality of the MN16a biostratigraphic subzone. Geol. Mag. 149 989–1000.

  • Hurai V. Danišík M. Huraiová M. Paquette J.-L. & Ádám A. 2013: Combined U/Pb and (U–Th)/He geochronometry of basalt maars in Western Carpathians: implications for age of intraplate volcanism and origin of zircon metasomatism. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 166 1235–1251.

  • Huraiová M. Konečný P. Konečný V. Simon K. & Hurai V. (1996) Mafic and salic xenoliths in Late Tertiary alkaline basalts: fluid inclusion and mineralogical evidence for a deep-crustal magmatic reservoir in the Western Carpathians. Eur. J. Mineral. 8 901–916.

  • Huraiová M. Paquette J.-L. Konečný P. Gannoun A.-M. & Hurai V. 2017: Geochemistry mineralogy and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopes in peraluminous A-type granite xenoliths in Pliocene–Pleistocene basalts of northern Pannonian Basin (Slovakia). Contrib. Mineral.Petrol. 172 8 Article number 59.

  • Janák M. & Lupták B. 1997: Pressure-temperature conditions of high grade metamorphism and migmatitization in the Malá Fatra crystalline complex the Western Carpathians. Geol. Carpath. 48 5 287–302.

  • Janák M. O’Brien P.J. Hurai V. & Reutel Ch. 1996: Metamorphic evolution and fluid composition of garnet-clinopyroxene amphibolites from the Tatra Mts. Western Carpathians. Lithos 39 57–79.

  • Janák M. Plašienka D. Frey M. Cosca M. Schmidt S.T. Lupták B. & Méres Š. 2001: Cretaceous evolution of a metamorphic core complex the Veporic unit Western Carpathians (Slovakia): P–T conditions and in situ 40Ar/39Ar UV laser probe dating of metapelites. J. Metamorph. Geol. 19 197–216.

  • Kantor J. 1960: Cretaceous orogenic processes in the light of geo-chronology of Veporic crystalline complex (Kohút zone). Geol. Práce Správy 20 5–27 (in Slovak).

  • Konečný V. Lexa J. Balogh K. & Konečný P. 1995: Alkali basalt volcanism in Southern Slovakia — Volcanic forms and time evolution. Acta Vulcanol. 7 167–171.

  • Konečný V. Kováč M. Lexa J. & Šefara J. 2002: Neogene evolution of the Carpatho-Pannonian region: an interplay of subduction and back-arc diapiric uprise in the mantle. EGU Stephan Mueller Spec. Publ. Ser. 1 105–123.

  • Konečný V. Lexa J. Konečný P. Balogh K. Elečko M. Hurai V. Huraiová M. Pristaš J. Sabol M. & Vass D. 2004: Guidebook to the Southern Slovakia Alkali Basalt Volcanic Field. D. Štúr Inst. Geol. Bratislava 1–143.

  • Korikovsky S.P. Dupej J. Boronikhin V.A. & Zinovieva N.G. 1990: Zoned garnets and their equilibria in mica schists and gneisses of Kohút crystalline complex Hnúšťa region Western Carpathians. Geol. Zborn. Geol. Carpath. 41 99–124.

  • Mange M.A. & Maurer H. 1992: Heavy minerals in the study of sediments: their application and limitations. In: Mange M.A. & Maurer H. (Eds.): Heavy Minerals in Colour. Springer 4–10.

  • Mange M.A. & Morton A.C. 2007: Geochemistry of Heavy Minerals. In: Mange M.A. & Wright D.T. (Eds.): Heavy Minerals in Use. Developments in Sedimentology 58 Elsevier Amsterdam 345–391.

  • Marková M. 1980: Mineralogical petrographic and geochemical investigation of Tertiary sediments of Lučenská kotlina Depression. D. Štúr Inst. Geol. Bratislava (in Slovak).

  • Marková M. 1982: Report from mineralogical and petrographic investigation of samples from borehole JH-1 Nižný Skálnik D. Štúr Inst. Geol. Bratislava (in Slovak).

  • Meinhold G. 2010: Rutile and its applications in earth sciences. Earth Sci. Rev. 102 1–28.

  • Meinhold G. Anders B. Kostopoulos D. & Reischmann T. 2008: Rutile chemistry and thermometry as provenance indicator: an example from Chios Island Greece. Sediment. Geol. 203 98–111.

  • Méres Š. 2008: Garnets — important informations resource about source area and parental rocks of the siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. In: Jurkovič L. (Ed.): Conference “Cambelove dni 2008” Abstract Book Comenius Univ. Bratislava 37–43 (in Slovak).

  • Méres Š. & Hovorka D. 1989: Metamorphic development of gneisses in the Suchý Malá Magura and Malá Fatra Mts. (Central Slovakia). Miner. Slov. 21 203–216 (in Slovak).

  • Méres Š. & Hovorka D. 1991: Geochemistry and metamorphic evolution of the Kohút crystalline complex mica schists (the Western Carpathians). Acta Geol. Geogr. Univ. Com. Geol. 47 15–66.

  • Méres Š. Ivan P. & Hovorka D. 2000: Garnet-pyroxene metabasites and antigorite serpentinites — evidence of the leptyno-amphibolite complex in the Branisko Mts. (Tatric Unit central Western Carpathians). Miner. Slov. 32 479–486.

  • Miháliková A. & Šímová M. 1989: Geochemistry and petrology of Miocene-Pleistocene alkali basalts of Middle and South Slovakia. Záp. Karpaty Ser. Geol. 12 7–142 (in Slovak).

  • Miyashiro A. & Shido F. 1973: Progressive compositional change of garnet in metapelite. Lithos 6 13–20.

  • Morton A.C. 1985: Heavy minerals in provenance studies. In: Zuffa G.G. (Ed.): Provenance of Arenites. Reidel Dordrecht 249–277.

  • Morton A.C. & Hallsworth C.R. 2007: Stability of detrital heavy minerals during burial diagenesis. In: Mange M.A. Wright D.T. (Eds.): Heavy minerals in Use. Developments in Sedimentology 58 Elsevier Amsterdam 215–245.

  • Morton A.C. Hallsworth C. & Chalton B. 2004: Garnet compositions in Scottish and Norwegian basement terrains: a framework for interpretation of North Sea sandstone provenance. Mar. Petrol. Geol. 21 393–410.

  • Murad E. Cashion J.D. Noble C.J. & Pilbrow J.R. 1995: The chemical state of Fe in rutile from an albitite in Norway. Mineral. Mag. 59 557–560.

  • Nandi K. 1967: Garnets as indices of progressive regional metamorphism. Mineral. Mag. 36 89–93.

  • Ohsaka T. Izumi F. & Fujiki Y. 1978. Raman spectrum of anatase TiO2. J. Raman Spectrosc. 7 321–324.

  • Oszczypko N. & Salata D. 2005: Provenance analyses of the Late Cretaceous–Palaeocene deposits of the Magura Basin (Polish Western Carpathians) – evidence from a study of heavy minerals. Acta Geol. Pol. 55 237–267.

  • Pécskay Z. Lexa J. Szakács A. Seghedi I. Balogh K. Konečný V. Zelenka T. Kovacs M. Póka T. Fülöp A. Márton E. Panaiotu C. & Cvetković V. 2006: Geochronology of Neogene magmatism in the Carpathian arc and intra-Carpathian area. Geol. Carpath. 57 511–530.

  • Planderová E. 1986: Biostratigraphic evaluation of sediments of the Poltár Formation. Geol. Práce Správy 84 113–118 (in Slovak).

  • Plašienka D. Grecula P. Putiš M. Kováč M. & Hovorka D. 1997: Evolution and structure of the Western Carpathians: An overview. In: Grecula P. Hovorka D. & Putiš M. (Eds.): Geological Evolution of the Western Carpathians. Miner. Slov. Monogr.Geocomplex Bratislava 1–24.

  • Plašienka D. Janák M. Lupták B. Milovský R. Frey M. 1999: Kinematics and Metamorphism of Cretaceous Core Complex: the Veporic Unit of the Western Carpathians. Phys. Chem. Earth (A) 24 8 651–685.

  • Porto S.P.S. Fleury P.A. & Damen T.C. 1967: Raman spectra of TiO2 MgF2 ZnF2 FeF2 and MnF2. Phys. Rev. 154 522–526.

  • Preston R.J. Hartley A. Hole M.J. Buck S. Bond J. Mange-Rajetzky M. & Still J. 1998: Integrated whole-rock trace element geochemistry and heavy-mineral chemistry studies: aids to the correlation of continental red-bed reservoirs in the Beryl Field U.K. North Sea. Petrol. Geosci. 4 7–16.

  • Preston J. Hartley A. Mange-Rajetzky M. Hole M.J. May G. & Buck S. 2002: The provenance of Triassic continental sandstones from the Beryl Field northern North Sea: mineralogical geochemical and sedimentological constraints. J. Sedim. Res. 72 18–29.

  • Rankenburg K. Lassiter J.C. & Brey G.P. 2004: Origin of megacrysts in volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Volcanic Chain — Constraints on magma genesis and crustal contamination. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 147 129–144.

  • Rice C. Darke K. & Still J. 1998: Tungsten-bearing rutile from the Kori Kollo gold mine Bolívia. Mineral. Mag. 62 421–429.

  • Rollinson H. R. 1999: Petrology and geochemistry of metamorphosed komatiites and basalts from the Sula Mountains Greenstone Belt Sierra Leone. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 134 86–101.

  • Sabeen H. M. Ramanujam N. & Morton A.C. 2002: The provenance of garnet: constraints provided by studies of coastal sediments from southern India. Sediment. Geol. 152 279–287.

  • Sabol M. Balogh K. Ďurišová A. Elečko M. Hensel K. Holec P. Hudáčková N. Janštová M. Kernátsová J. Klembara J. Konečný P. Konečný V. Pipík R. Slamková M. Sitár V. Túnyi I. & Vass D. 2004: Early Villanyian site of Hajnáčka I (southern Slovakia). Gemer-Malohont Musem Rimavská Sobota Comenius Univ. Bratislava 143 p.

  • Šarinová K. 2008: Identification of the source rocks of detrital garnets by their chemical composition (Western Carpathians Slovakia). Miner. Slov. 40 33-44.

  • Scott K.M. 2005: Rutile geochemistry as a guide to porphyry Cu–Au mineralization Northparkes New South Wales Australia. Geochem. Explor. Env. A 5 247–253.

  • Skewes M.A. & Stern C.R. 1979: Petrology and geochemistry of alkali basalts and ultramafic inclusions from the Pali-Aike Volcanic Field in Southern Chile and the origin of Patagonian Plateau lavas J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 6 3–25.

  • Smith D. & Perseil E.A. 1997: Sb-rich rutile in the manganese concentrations at St. Marcel-Praborna Aosta Valley Italy petrology and crystal-chemistry. Mineral. Mag. 61 655–669.

  • Snopková P. & Bajaník Š. 1979: Evidence of Devonian (givetian–frasnian) in borehole FV-1 Blhovce. Geol. Práce Správy 72 7–17 (in Slovak).

  • Spišiak J. & Hovorka D. 1985: Two types of garnet-bearing amphibolites from Klátov Group. Miner. Slov. 17 167–174.

  • Suggate S.M. & Hall R. 2014: Using detrital garnet compositions to determine provenance: a new compositional database and procedure. In: Scott R.A. Smyth H.R. Morton A.C. & Richardson N. (Eds.): Sediment Provenance Studies in Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 386 373–393.

  • Tomkins H.S. Powell R. & Ellis D.J. 2007: The pressure dependence of the zirconium-in-rutile thermometer. J. Metamorph. Geol. 25 703–713.

  • Tompsett G.A. Bowmaker G.A. Cooney R.P. Metson J.B. Rodgers K.A. & Seakins J.M. 1995: The Raman spectrum of brookite TiO2 (Pbca Z=8). J. Raman Spectrosc. 26 57–62.

  • Triebold S. von Eynatten H. Luvizotto G.L. & Zack T. 2007: Deducing source rock lithology from detrital rutile geochemistry: an example from the Erzgebirge Germany. Chem. Geol. 244 421–436.

  • Vass D. & Bajaník Š. 1988: Structural Borehole FV-1 (Blhovce). Reg. Geol. Záp. Karpát 23 1–86.

  • Vass D. & Elečko M. 1992: Explanation to the gological map of Lučenská kotlina Depression and Cerová vrchovina Upland. D. Štúr Inst. Geol. Bratislava 1–196 (in Slovak).

  • Vass D. & Kraus I. 1985: Two basalts of different age in southern Slovakia and their relation to the Poltár Formation. Miner. Slov. 17 435–440 (in Slovak).

  • Vass D. Elečko M. & Bodnár J. 1981: Tectonics of Rimavská kotlina Depression. Geol. Práce Spr. 75 77–90.

  • Vass D. Elečko M. & Konečný V. 2007: Geology of Lučenská kotlina Depression and Cerová vrchovina Upland. D. Štúr Inst. Geol. Bratislava 1–117 (in Slovak).

  • von Eynatten H. & Gaupp R. 1999: Provenance of Cretaceous synorogenic sandstones in the Eastern Alps: constraints from framework petrography heavy mineral analysis and mineral chemistry. Sediment. Geol. 124 81–111.

  • Vozárová A. 1993: Pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphism in the northern part of the Branisko Crystalline Complex. Geol. Carpath. 44 219–232.

  • Vozárová A. & Faryad S.W. 1997: Petrology of Branisko crystalline rock complex. In: Grecula P. Hovorka D. & Putiš M. (Eds.): Geological Evolution of the Western Carpathians. Miner. Slov. Monogr. Bratislava 343–350.

  • Vozárová A. & Vozár J. 1988: Late Paleozoic in West Carpathians. D. Štúr Inst. Geol. Bratislava 1–314.

  • Watson E.B. Wark D.A. & Thomas J.B. 2006: Crystallization thermometers for zircon and rutile. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 151 413–433.

  • Zack T. Kronz A. Foley S.F. & Rivers T. 2002: Trace element abundances in rutiles from eclogites and associated garnet mica schists. Chem. Geol. 184 97–122.

  • Zack T. von Eynatten H.V. & Kronz A. 2004a: Rutile geochemistry and its potential use in quantitative provenance studies. Sediment. Geol. 171 37–58.

  • Zack T. Moraes R. & Kronz A. 2004b: Temperature dependence of Zr in rutile: empirical calibration of a rutile thermometer. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 148 471–488.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.699
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.676

CiteScore 2018: 1.76

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.627
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.203

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 294 98 10
PDF Downloads 172 72 6