Age and microfacies of oceanic Upper Triassic radiolarite components from the Middle Jurassic ophiolitic mélange in the Zlatibor Mountains (Inner Dinarides, Serbia) and their provenance

Open access


Oceanic radiolarite components from the Middle Jurassic ophiolitic mélange between Trnava and Rožanstvo in the Zlatibor Mountains (Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt) west of the Drina–Ivanjica unit yield Late Triassic radiolarian ages. The microfacies characteristics of the radiolarites show pure ribbon radiolarites without crinoids or thin-shelled bivalves. Beside their age and the preservation of the radiolarians this points to a deposition of the radiolarites on top of the oceanic crust of the Neo-Tethys, which started to open in the Late Anisian. South of the study area the ophiolitic mélange (Gostilje–Ljubiš–Visoka–Radoševo mélange) contains a mixture of blocks of 1) oceanic crust, 2) Middle and Upper Triassic ribbon radiolarites, and 3) open marine limestones from the continental slope. On the basis of this composition we can conclude that the Upper Triassic radiolarite clasts derive either from 1) the younger parts of the sedimentary succession above the oceanic crust near the continental slope or, more convincingly 2) the sedimentary cover of ophiolites in a higher nappe position, because Upper Triassic ribbon radiolarites are only expected in more distal oceanic areas. The ophiolitic mélange in the study area overlies different carbonate blocks of an underlying carbonate-clastic mélange (Sirogojno mélange). We date and describe three localities with different Upper Triassic radiolarite clasts in a mélange, which occurs A) on top of Upper Triassic fore-reef to reefal limestones (Dachstein reef), B) between an Upper Triassic reefal limestone block and a Lower Carnian reef limestone (Wetterstein reef), and C) in fissures of an Upper Triassic lagoonal to back-reef limestone (Dachstein lagoon). The sedimentary features point to a sedimentary and not to a tectonic emplacement of the ophiolitic mélange (= sedimentary mélange) filling the rough topography of the topmost carbonate-clastic mélange below. The block spectrum of the underlying and slightly older carbonate-clastic mélange points to a deposition of the sedimentary ophiolitic mélange east of or on top of the Drina–Ivanjica unit.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Aubouin J. 1973: Des tectoniques superposées et de leur signification par rapport aux modèles géophysiques: l’exemple des Dinarides; paléotectonique tectonique tarditectonique neotectonique. Bull. Soc. Géol. Fr. 15 5–6 426–460.

  • Baumgartner P.O. 1985: Jurassic sedimentary evolution and nappe emplacement in the Argolis Peninsula (Peloponnesus; Greece). Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles 99 1–111.

  • Baumgartner P.O. 2013: Mesozoic radiolarites-accumulation as a function of sea surface fertility on Tethyan margins and in ocean basins. Sedimentology 60 292–318.

  • Blatt H. 1967: Provenance determinations and recycling of sediments. J. Sediment. Petrol. 37 1031–1044.

  • Blome C.D. 1983: Upper Triassic Capnuchosphaeridae and Capnodocinae (Radiolaria) from east-central Oregon. Micropaleontology 29 11–49.

  • Blome C.D. 1984: Upper Triassic radiolaria and radiolarian zonation from Western North America. Bulletin of American Paleontology 85 318 1–88.

  • Bragin N. Yu. 1991: A Carnian Radiolarian Assemblage from Volcanogenic-Siliceous Formations of the Ekonai Zone of the Koryak Upland. Izvestiya Akaciemii Nauk SSSR Seriya Geologicheskaya 6 79–86.

  • Bragin N.Yu. 2007: Late Triassic Radiolarians of Sothern Cyprus. Paleontol. J. 41 10 951–1029.

  • Bragin N.Yu. 2011: Triassic Radiolarians of Kotel’nyi Island (New Siberian Islands Arctic). Paleontol. J. 45 7 711–778.

  • Bragin N.Yu. & Tekin U.K. 1996: Age of radiolarian-chert blocks from the Senonian Ophiolitic mélange (Ankara Turkey). The Island Arc 5 114–122.

  • Bragin N. Danelian T. & Chanier F. 2014: Late Norian (Late Triassic) radiolarian assemblages from chert pebbles of the Pentalofos Formation (Mesohellenic basin Greece). Palaeogeographic implications. Bull. Soc. Géol. Fr. 185 2 115–122.

  • Carter E.S. 1993: Biochronology and paleontology of uppermost Triassic (Rhaetian) radiolarians Queen Charlotte Islands British Columbia Canada. Mémoires de Géologie (Lausanne) 11 1–175.

  • Chiari M. Djerić N. Garfagnoli F. Hrvatović H. Krstić M. Levi N. Malasoma A. Marroni M. Menna F. Nirta G. Pandolfi L. Principi G. Saccani E. Stojadinović U. & Trivić B. 2011: The Geology of the Zlatibor-Maljen area (Western Serbia): A Geotraverse across the Ophiolites of the Dinaric-Hellenic collisional belt. Ofioliti 36 2 139–166.

  • Chiari M. Baumgartner P. Bernoulli D. Bortolotti V. Marcucci M. Photiades A. & Principi G. 2013: Late Triassic Early and Middle Jurassic Radiolaria from ferromanganese-chert “ nodules” (Angelokastron Argolis Greece): evidence for prolonged radiolarite sedimentation in the MaliacVardar Ocean. Facies 59 391–424.

  • Cohen K.M. Finney S.C. Gibbard P.L. & Fan J.-X. 2013; updated: The ICS International Chronostratigrahic Chart. Episodes 36 199–204.

  • De Wever P. Sanflippo A. Riedel W. R. & Gruber B. 1979: Triassic Radiolaria from Greece Sicily and Turkey. Micropaleontology 25 1 75–110.

  • De Wever P. Dumitrica P. Caulet J.P. Nigrini C. & Caridroit M. 2001: Radiolarians in the sedimentary record. Gordon & Breach Science Publication 1–533.

  • Dimitrijević M.D. 1982: Dinarides: an outline of tectonics. Earth Evolution Sciences 2 4–23.

  • Dimitrijević M.D. 1997: Geology of Yugoslavia. Geol. Inst. GEMINI Special Publications Belgrade 1–187.

  • Dimitrijević M.D. & Dimitrijević M.N. 1973: Olistostrome Mélange in the Yugoslavian Dinarides and Late Mesozoic Plate Tectonics. J. Geology 81 328–340.

  • Dimitrijević M.N. & Dimitrijević M.D. 1991: Triassic carbonate platform of the Drina-Ivanjica element (Dinarides). Acta Geol. Hung. 34 15–44.

  • Djerić N. Gerzina N. & Schmid M.S. 2007: Age of the Juarassic radiolarian chert formation from the Zlatar Mountain (SW Serbia). Ofioliti 32 2 101–108.

  • Djerić N. Gerzina N. & Simić D. 2010: Middle Jurassic radiolarian assemblages from Zlatar Mt. (SW Serbia). Geološki anali Balkanskoga poluostrva 71 119–125.

  • Djerić N. Schmid M.S. & Gerzina N. 2012: Middle Jurassic radiolarian assemblages from the sedimentary cover of the Adriatic margin (Zlatar Mountain SW Serbia). Bull. Soc. Géol. Fr. 183 4 359–368.

  • Ferrière J. Chanier F. Baumgartner P. Dumitrica P. Caridroit M. BoutRouzmazeiles V. Graveleau F. Danielian T. & Ventalon S. 2015: The evolution of the Triassic-Jurassic Maliac oceanic lithosphere: insights from the supra-ophiolitic series of Othris (continental Greece). Bull. Soc. Géol. Fr. 186 399–411.

  • Ferrière J. Baumgartner P.O. Chanier F. 2016: The Maliac Ocean: the origin of the Tethyan Hellenic ophiolites. Int. J. Earth Sci. 105 1941–1963.

  • Festa A. Pini G.A. Dilek Y. & Codegone G. 2010a: Mélanges and mélange-forming processes: a historical overview and new concepts. In: Dilek Y. (Ed.): Alpine Concept in Geology. Int. Geol. Rev. 52 10–12 1040–1105.

  • Festa A. Pini G.A. Dilek Y. Codegone G. Vezzani L. Ghisetti F. Lucente C.C. & Ogata K. 2010b: Peri-Adriatic mélanges and their evolution in the Tethyan realm. In: Dilek Y. (Ed.): Eastern Mediterranean geodynamics (Part II). Int. Geol. Rev. 52 4–6 369–406.

  • Festa A. Ogata K. Pini G.A. Dilek Y. & Alonso J.L. 2016: Origin and significance of olistostromes in the evolution of orogenic belts: A global synthesis. Gondwana Res. 39 180–203.

  • Flügel E. 2004: Microfacies of carbonate rocks. Analysis interpretation and application. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York 1–976.

  • Frisch W. 1979: Tectonic Progradation on Plate Tectonic Evolution of the Alps. Tectonophysics 60 121–139.

  • Gawlick H.-J. & Böhm F. 2000: Sequence and isotope stratigraphy of Late Triassic distal periplatform limestones from the Northern Calcareous Alps (Kälberstein Quarry Berchtesgaden Hallstatt Zone). Int. J. Earth Sci. 89 108–129.

  • Gawlick H.-J. & Frisch W. 2003: The Middle to Late Jurassic carbonate clastic radiolaritic flysch sediments in the Northern Calcareous Alps: sedimentology basin evolution and tectonics — an overview. Neues Jahrb. Geol. Paläontol. Abh. 230 163–213.

  • Gawlick H.-J. & Missoni S. 2015: Middle Triassic radiolarite pebbles in the Middle Jurassic Hallstatt Mélange of the Eastern Alps: implications for Triassic-Jurassic geodynamic and palaeogeographic reconstructions of the western Tethyan realm. Facies 61 3 13. Doi: 10.1007/S10347-015-0439-3.

  • Gawlick H.-J. Frisch W. Vecsei A. Steiger T. & Böhm F. 1999: The change from rifting to thrusting in the Northern Calcareous Alps as recorded in Jurassic sediments. Geol. Rundsch. 87 644–657.

  • Gawlick H.J. Frisch W. Hoxha L. Dumitrica P. Krystyn L. Lein R. Missoni S. & Schlagintweit F. 2008: Mirdita Zone ophiolites and associated sediments in Albania reveal Neotethys Ocean origin. Int. J. Earth Sci. 97 865–881.

  • Gawlick H.-J. Missoni S. Schlagintweit F. Suzuki H. Frisch W. Krystyn L. Blau J. & Lein R. 2009a: Jurassic Tectonostratigraphy of the Austroalpine Domain. J. Alp. Geol. 50 1–152.

  • Gawlick H.J. Sudar M. Suzuki H. Djerić N. Missoni S. Lein R. & Jovanović D. 2009b: Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic radiolarians from the ophiolitic melange of the Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt SW Serbia. Neues Jahrb. Geol. Paläontol. Abh. 253 2–3 293–311.

  • Gawlick H.-J. Goričan Š. Missoni S. & Lein R. 2012a: Late Anisian platform drowning and radiolarite deposition as a consequence of the opening of the Neotethys Ocean (High Karst nappe Montenegro). Bull. Soc. Géol. Fr. 183 349–358.

  • Gawlick H.-J. Missoni S. Schlagintweit F. & Suzuki H. 2012b: Jurassic active continental margin deep-water basin and carbonate platform formation in the north-western Tethyan realm (Austria Germany). J. Alp. Geol. 54 189–291.

  • Gawlick H.-J. Goričan S. Missoni S. Dumitrica P. Lein R. Frisch W. & Hoxha L. 2016a: Middle and Upper Triassic radiolarite components from the Kcira-Dushi-Komani ophiolitic mélange and their provenance (Mirdita Zone Albania). Revue de micropaléontology 59 359–380.

  • Gawlick H.-J. Missoni S. Suzuki H. Sudar M. Lein R. & Jovanović D. 2016b: Triassic radiolarite and carbonate components from the Jurassic ophiolitic mélange (Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt). Swiss J. Geosci. 109 3 473–494.

  • Goričan Š. Karamata S. & Batočanin-Srećković D. 1999: Upper Triassic (Carnian-Norian) radiolarians in cherts of Sjenica (SW Serbia) and the time span of the oceanic realm ancestor of the Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt. Bulletin de l’Académie Serbe des Sciences et des Arts Classe Sciences Mathématiques et Naturelles 39 141–149.

  • Haas J. Kovács S. Gawlick H.-J. Grădinaru E. Karamata S. Sudar M. Péró C. Mello J. Polák M. Ogorelec B. & Buser S. 2011: Jurassic evolution of the tectonostratigraphic units of the Circum-Pannonian Region. Jahrb. Geol. Bundesanst. 151 281–354.

  • Hsü K.J. 1968: Principles of mélanges and their bearing on the Franciscan-Knoxville Paradox: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 79 1063–1074.

  • Hsü K.J. 1974: Mélanges and their distinction from olistostromes. SEPM Spec. Publ. 19 321–333.

  • Jenkyns H.C. & Winterer E.L. 1982: Palaeoceanography of Mesozoic ribbon radiolarites. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 60 351–375.

  • Karamata S. 2006: The geological development of the Balkan Peninsula related to the approach collision and compression of Gondwana and Eurasian units. In: Robertson A.H.F. & Mountrakis D. (Eds.): Tectonic Development of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 260 155–178.

  • Kober L. 1914: Die Bewegungsrichtung der alpinen Deckengebirge des Mittelmeeres. Petermann's Geographische Mitteilungen 60 250–256.

  • Kovács S. Sudar M. Gradinaru E. Gawlick H.-J. Karamata S. Haas J. Péró C. Gaetani M. Mello J. Polák M. Aljinović D. Ogorelec B. Kolar-Jurkovšek T. Jurkovšek B. & Buser S. 2011: Triassic evolution of the Tectonostratigraphic units of the Circum-Pannonian Region. Jahrb. Geol. Bundesanst. 151 199–280.

  • Krische O. Goričan Š. & Gawlick H.-J. 2014: Erosion of a Jurassic ophiolitic nappe-stack as indicated by exotic components in the Lower Cretaceous Rossfeld Formation of the central Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria). Geol. Carpath. 65 1 3–24.

  • Lein R. 1987: Evolution of the Northern Calcareous Alps during Triassic times. In:. Flügel H.W Faupl P. (Eds): Geodynamics of the Eastern Alps. Deuticke Wien 85–102.

  • Lewis D.W. 1984: Practical sedimentology. Hutchinson Ross Stroudsburg 1–229.

  • Michail M. Pipera K. Koroneos A. Kilias A. & Ntaflos T. 2016: New perspectives on the origin and emplacement of the Late Jurassic Fanos granite associated with an intra-oceanic subduction within the Neotethyan Axios-Vardar Ocean. Int. J. Earth Sci. 105 1965–1983.

  • Missoni S. & Gawlick H.-J. 2011a: Jurassic mountain building and Mesozoic-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Northern Calcareous Alps as proven in the Berchtesgaden Alps (Germany). Facies 57 137–186.

  • Missoni S. & Gawlick H.-J. 2011b: Evidence for Jurassic subduction from the Northern Calcareous Alps (Berchtesgaden; Austroalpine Germany). Int. J. Earth Sci. 100 1605–1631.

  • Missoni S. Gawlick H.-J. Sudar M.N. Jovanović D. & Lein R. 2012: Onset and demise of the Wetterstein Carbonate Platform in the mélange areas of the Zlatibor mountain (Sirogojno SW Serbia). Facies 58 95–111.

  • Nakaseko K. & Nishimura A. 1979: Upper Triassic Radiolaria from Southwest Japan. Science Reports — College of General Education Osaka University 28 2 61–109.

  • Obradović J. & Goričan Š. 1988: Siliceous deposits in Yugoslavia: Occurrences Types and Ages. In: Hein J.R. Obradović J. (Eds): Siliceous deposits of the Tethys and Pacific regions. Springer New York 51–64.

  • Ozsvárt P. Dosztály L. Migiros G. Tselepidis V. & Kovács S. 2012: New radiolarian biostratigraphic age constraints on Middle Triassic basalts and radiolarites from the Inner Hellenides (northern Pindos and Othris Mountains northern Greece) and their implications for the geodynamic evolution of the early Mesozoic Tethys. Int. J. Earth Sci. 101 1487–1501.

  • Pessagno E.A. Finch W. & Abbott P.L. 1979: Upper Triassic Radiolaria from the San Hipolito Formation Baja California. Micropaleontology 25 2 160–197.

  • Plašienka D. 2012: Jurassic syn-rift and Cretaceous syn-orogenic coarse-grained deposits related to opening and closure of the Vahic (South Penninic) Ocean in the Western Carpathians — an overview. Geol. Quarterly 56 601–628.

  • Radovanović Z. & Popević A. 1999: Geological map of the Republic of Serbia Užice 4 1:50000. Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection Republic of Serbia.

  • Robertson A.H.F. 2012: Late Palaeozoic–Cenozoic tectonic development of Greece and Albania in the context of alternative reconstructions of Tethys in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Int. Geol. Rev. 54 373–454.

  • Schmid M.S. Bernoulli D. Fügenschuh B. Matenco L. Schefer S. Schuster R. Tischler M. & Ustaszewski K. 2008: The Alpine–Carpathian–Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units. Swiss J. Geosci. 101 1 139–183.

  • Shanmugam G. 2015: The landslide problem. J. Palaeogeography 4 2 109–166.

  • Stampfli G.M. & Kozur H.W. 2006: Europe from Variscan to the Alpine cycles. In: Gee D.G. & Stephenson R.A. (Eds.): Europaean Lithosphere Dynamics. Geological Society Memoir 32 57–82.

  • Sudar M. Gawlick H.-J. Missoni S. Suzuki H. Jovanović D. & Lein R. 2010: The carbonate-clastic radiolaritic mélange of Pavlovica Cuprija: a key to solve the palaeogeography of the Hallstatt Limestones in the Zlatar Mountain (SW Serbia). J. Alp. Geol. 52 53–57.

  • Sudar M.N. Gawlick H.-J. Lein R. Missoni S. Kovács S. & Jovanović D. 2013: Depositional environment age and facies of the Middle Triassic Bulog and Rid formations in the Inner Dinarides (Zlatibor Mountain SW Serbia): evidence for the Anisian break-up of the Neotethys Ocean. Neues Jahrb. Geol. Paläontol. Abh. 269 291–320.

  • Sugiyama K. 1997: Triassic and Lower Jurassic Radiolarian Biostratigraphy in the Siliceous Claystone and Bedded Chert Units of the Southeastern Mino Terrane Central Japan. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum 24 79–153.

  • Tekin U.K. 1999: Biostratigraphy and Systematics of LateMiddle to Late Triassic Radiolarians from the Taurus Mountains and Ankara Region Turkey. Geol. Paläontol. Mitt. Innsbruck 5 1–296.

  • Vishnevskaya V. Djerić N. & Zakariadze G.S. 2009: New data on Mesozoic Radiolaria of Serbia and Bosnia and implications for the age and evolution of oceanic volcanic rocks in the Central and Northern Balkans. Lithos 108 1–4 72–105.

  • Zuffa G.G. 1980: Hybrid arenites: their composition and classification. J. Sediment. Petrol. 50 21–29.

  • Zuffa G.G. 1985: Provenance of arenites. D. Reidel Publishing Dordrecht 1–408.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.699
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.676

CiteScore 2018: 1.76

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.627
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.203

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 148 91 6
PDF Downloads 157 102 3