Rhinocerotidae from the Upper Miocene deposits of the Western Pannonian Basin (Hungary): implications for migration routes and biogeography

Open access

Abstract

Although the rhinoceros remains have high biochronological significance, they are poorly known or scarcely documented in the uppermost Miocene deposits of Europe. Several specimens collected from the Upper Miocene (around 7.0 Ma, Turolian) deposits of Kávás (Pannonian Basin, Western Hungary), previously determined as Rhinoceros sp., are revised and described in this paper. The postcranial remains of these specimens belong to “Dihoplus” megarhinus (de Christol) on the basis of the morphological and morphometric characters of humerus, radii, metacarpal and metatarsal elements. An overview of rhinoceros remains from several uppermost Miocene localities and the revision of the rhinoceros material from the Pannonian Basin suggest that “D.” megarhinus spread during the latest Miocene from the Pannonian Basin towards Italy. The occurrences of this species in Western Hungary and Italy during the latest Miocene further imply that Rhinocerotini species were biogeographically segregated between Western, Southern and Central Europe.

Alexejew A.K. 1916: Vertebrate fauna of the Novo Elizavetovka Village. [Fauna pozvonochnykh derevni Novo Elizavetovki]. Odessa, Ukraine, 1–453 (in Russian).

Ambrosetti P. 1972: Lo scheletro di Dicerorhinus etruscus (Falc.) di Capitone (Umbria meridionale). Geol. Romana 11, 177–198.

Angelone C., Colombero S., Esu D., Giuntelli P., Marcolini F., Pavia M., Trenkwalder S., van den Hoek Ostende L.W., Zunino M. & Pavia G. 2011: Moncucco Torinese, a new postevaporitic Messinian fossiliferous site from Piedmont (NW Italy). Neu. Jb. Geol. Paläont., Abh. 259, 89–104.

Antoine P.-O. 2002: Phylogénie et évolution des Elasmotheriina (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae). Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Natur. 188, 1–359.

Benda L. 1927: The history of the paleontological excavations at Baltavár in the course of seventy years 1856-1926. Joint Stock Company, Szombathely, 1–64.

Bernor R.L., Feibel C. & Viranta S. 2003: The vertebrate locality of Hatvan, Late Miocene (Middle Turolian, MN 12) Hungary. In: Petculescu A. & Ştiucă E. (Eds.): Advances in Vertebrate Paleontology “Hen to Panta”. Romanian Academy, Institute of Speleology “Emil Racovită”, Bucharest, 105–112.

Bernor R.L., Scott R.S. & Haile-Selassie Y. 2005: A contribution to the evolutionary history of Ethiopian Hipparionine Horses: Morphometric evidence from the postcranial skeleton. Geodiversitas 27, 1, 133–158.

Bernor R.L., Kaiser T., Nelson S. & Rook L. 2011: Systematics and paleobiology of Hippotherium malpassii n. sp. (Equidae, Mammalia) from the latest Miocene of Baccinello V3 (Tuscany, Italy). Boll. Soc. Paleont. Ital. 50, 175–208.

Brandt J.F. 1878: Tentamen synopseos rhinocerotidum viventium, et fossilium. Mém. Acad. Imper. Sci. St. Petersbourg 26, 5, 1–66.

Cerdeño E. 1992: Spanish Neogene rhinoceroses. Palaeontology 35, 2, 297–308.

Cerdeño E. 1993: Remarks on the Spanish Plio-Pleistocene Stephanorhinus etruscus (Rhinocerotidae). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 317, s. II, 1363–1367.

Cerdeño E. 1995: Cladistic analysis of the family Rhinocerotidae (Perissodactyla). Amer. Mus. Novit. 3143, 1–25.

Cerdeño E. 1998: Diversity and evolutionary trends of the Family Rhinocerotidae (Perissodactyla). Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 141, 13–34.

Colombero S., Angelone C., Bonelli E., Carnevale G., Cavallo O., Delfino M., Giuntelli P., Mazza P., Pavia G., Pavia M. & Repetto G. 2014: The upper Messinian assemblages of fossil vertebrate remains of Verduno (NW Italy): Another brick for a latest Miocene bridge across the Mediterranean. Neu. Jb. Geol. Paläont., Abh. 272, 3, 287–324.

Croizet J.B. & Jobert A. 1828: Recherches sur les ossements fossiles du département du Puy-de-Dôme. Adolphe Delahays, Paris, 1–226.

Cuvier G. 1822: Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, où l’on rétablit les caractères de plusieurs animaux, dont les révolutions du globe ont détruit les espèces. Nouvelle édition (2ème), Tome 3. G. Dufour et E. d’Ocagne, Paris, 1–412.

de Christol J. 1834: Recherches sur les caractères des grandes espèces de Rhinocéros fossiles. Ann. Sci. Natur. Paris 2, 4, 44–112.

De Giuli C. 1989: The rodents of the Brisighella Latest Miocene fauna. Boll. Soc. Paleont. Ital. 28, 23, 197–212.

Deng T., Wang X., Fortelius M., Li Q., Wang Y., Tseng Z.J., Takeuchi G.T., Saylor J.E., Saila L.K. & Xie G. 2011: Out of Tibet: Pliocene Woolly Rhino suggests high-plateau origin of Ice Age Megaherbivores. Science 333, 1285–1288.

Ďurišová A. 2004: Rhinoceroses. In: Sabol M. (Ed.): Early Villanyian site of Hajnáčka I (southern Slovakia). Gemer-Malohont Museum, Rimavská Sobota, 98–110.

Falconer H. 1868: On the European Pliocene and Post-Pliocene species of the genus Rhinoceros. In: Murchison C. & Hardwicke R. (Eds.): Palaeontological Memoirs and Notes of the late Hugh Falconer, 2: Mastodon, Elephant, Rhinoceros, Ossiferous Caves, Primeval Man and His Cotemporaries. Spottiswoode and Co., London, 309–403.

Fisher G. 1814: Zoognosia tabulis synopticis illustrata, III: Quadrupedum reliquorum, cerotum et monotrymatum descriptionem continens. Typis Nicolai Sergeides Vsevolozsky, Mosquae, 1–694.

Fortelius M., Mazza P. & Sala B. 1993: Stephanorhinus (Mammalia: Rhinocerotidae) of the Western European Pleistocene, with a revision of S. etruscus (Falconer, 1868). Palaeontogr. Italica 80, 63–155.

Fukuchi A., Nakaya H., Takai M. & Ogino S. 2009: A preliminary report on the Pliocene rhinoceros from Udunga, Transbaikalia, Russia. Asian Palaeoprimat. 5, 61–98.

Gasparik M. 2001: Neogene proboscidean remains from Hungary; an overview. Fragm. Palaeontol. Hungarica 19, 61–77.

Gasparik M. 2004: Neogene and Early Pleistocene proboscidean remains from Hungary [Magyarországi neogén és alsó-pleisztocén Proboscidea maradványok]. PhD. Thesis, Eötvös Loránd University of Sciences, Budapest, 1–129 (in Hungarian).

Geraads D. 1988: Révision des Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia) du Turolien de Pikermi: Comparaison avec les formes voisines. Ann. Paléont. 74, 13–41.

Geraads D. & Spassov N. 2009: Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Bulgaria. Paläeontographica Abt. A 287, 99–122.

Giaourtsakis I. 2009: The Late Miocene Mammal Faunas of the Mytilinii Basin, Samos Island, Greece: New Collection: 9. Rhinocerotidae. Beitr. Paläont. 31, 157–187.

Giaourtsakis I., Theodorou G., Roussiakis S., Athanassiou A. & Iliopoulos G. 2006: Late Miocene horned rhinoceroses (Rhinocerotinae, Mammalia) from Kerassia (Euboea, Greece). Neu. Jb. Geol. Paläont., Abh. 239, 3, 367–398.

Gibbard P.L., Head M.J. & Walker M.J.C. 2010: Formal ratification of the Quaternary System/Period and the Pleistocene Series/Epoch with a base at 2.58 Ma. J. Quat. Science 25, 2, 96–102.

Gloger C.W.L. 1841: Gemeinnuetziges Hand- und Hilfsbuch der Naturgeschichte. Aug. Schulz and Co 1, Breslau, 1–496.

Gray J.E. 1821: On the natural arrangement of vertebrose animals. London Medical Rep. 15, 296–310.

Groves C.P. 1983: Phylogeny of the living species of rhinoceros. Z. Zool. Syst. Evolut.-forsch. 21, 293–313.

Guérin C. 1972: Une nouvelle espèce de Rhinocéros (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) à Vialette (Haute-Loire, France) et dans d’autres gisements du Villafranchien Inférieur Européen: Dicerorhinus jeanvireti n. sp.. Doc. Lab. Géol. Fac. Sci. Lyon 49, 53–161.

Guérin C. 1980: Les rhinocéros (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) du Miocène terminal au Pleistocène supérieur en Europe occidentale: comparaison avec les espèces actuelles. Doc. Lab. Géol. Fac. Sci. Lyon 79, 1–1182.

Guérin C. 1982: Les Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) du Miocène terminal au Pleistocène supérieur d’Europe occidentale compares aux espèces actuelles: tendences évolutives et relations phylogénétiques. Geobios 15, 4, 599–605.

Guérin C. 2004: Les rhinocéros (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) du gisement Villafranchien moyen de Saint-Vallier (Drôme). Geobios 37, 259–278.

Guérin C. & Santafé-Llopis J.V. 1978: Dicerorhinus miguelcrusafonti nov. sp., une nouvelle espèce de rhinocéros (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) du gisement pliocène supérieur de Layna (Soria, Espagne) et de la formation pliocène de Perpignan (Pyrénées-Orientales, France). Geobios 11, 4, 457–491.

Guérin C. & Sen S. 1998: Rhinocerotidae. In: Sen S. (Ed.): Le gisement de vertébrés pliocènes de Çalta, Ankara, Turquie. Geodiversitas 20, 3, 397–407.

Guérin C. & Tsoukala E. 2013: The Tapiridae, Rhinocerotidae and Suidae (Mammalia) of the Early Villafranchian site of Milia (Grevena, Macedonia, Greece). Geodiversitas 35, 2, 447–489.

Guérin C., Ballesio R. & Meon-Vilain H. 1969: Le Dicerorhinus megarhinus (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) du Pliocène de Saint-Laurent-des-Arbres (Gard). Doc. Lab. Géol. Fac. Sci. Lyon, Notes et Memoires 31, 55–145.

Haas J., Budai T., Csontos L., Fodor L. & Konrád Gy. 2010: Pre-Cenozoic geological map of Hungary, 1:500,000. Geol. Inst. Hungary.

Hays I. 1834: Descriptions of the specimens of interior maxillary bones of Mastodons in the Cabinet of the American Philosophical Society, with remarks on the genus Tetracaulodon. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. N.S. IV, 317–339.

Heissig K. 1989: The Rhinocerotidae. In: Prothero D.R. & Schoch R.M. (Eds.): The evolution of Perissodactyls. Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics 15, 399–417.

Heissig K. 1996: The stratigraphical range of fossil rhinoceroses in the Late Neogene of Europe and Eastern Mediterranean. In: Bernor R.L., Fahlbush V. & Mittman H.-W. (Eds.): The Evolution of Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas. Columbia University Press, New York, 339–347.

Heissig K. 1999: Family Rhinocerotidae. In: Rössner G.E. & Heissig K. (Eds.): The Miocene Land Mammals of Europe. F. Pfeil, Munich, 175–188.

Hürzeler J. & Engesser B. 1976: Les faunes de mammifères néogènes du bassin de Baccinello (Grosseto, Italie). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 293, 333–336.

Juhász Gy. 1991: Lithostratigraphical and sedimentological framework of the Pannonian (s.l.) sedimentary sequence in the Hungarian Plain (Alföld), Eastern Hungary. Acta Geol. Hung. 34, 53–72.

Juhász Gy., Pogácsás Gy., Magyar I. & Vakarcs G. 2007: Tectonic versus climatic control on the evolution of fluvio-deltaic systems in a lake basin, Eastern Pannonian Basin. Sed. Geol. 202, 72–95.

Kaup J.-J. 1832: Über Rhinoceros incisivus Cuvier und eine neue Art, Rhinoceros schleiermacheri. Isis 8, 898–904.

Kaiser T.M. & Bernor R.L. 2006: The Baltavar Hippotherium: A mixed feeding Upper Miocene hipparion (Equidae, Perissodactyla) from Hungary (East-Central Europe). Beitr. Paläont. 30, 241–267.

Kordos L. 1992: Evolution and biochronology of the Tertiary and Quaternary mammal fauna of Hungary [Magyarország harmad- és negyedidőszaki emlősfaunájának fejlődése és biokronológiája]. DSc. Thesis, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1–103 (in Hungarian).

Kormos T. 1914: Über die Resultate meiner Ausgrabungen im Jahr 1913. Jb. Kgl. Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst. 1913, 559–604.

Kretzoi M. 1942: Bemerkungen zum System der nachmiozänen Nashorn-Gattungen. Földt. Közl. 72, 4–12, 309–318.

Kretzoi M. 1952: Die Raubtiere der Hipparionfauna von Polgárdi. A Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet évkönyve 40, 3, 1–35.

Kretzoi M. 1982: Wichtigere Streufunde aus der Wirbeltierpaläontologischen Sammlung der Ungarischen Geologischen Anstalt — 7. Mitteilung [Fontosabb szórványleletek a MÁFI Gerincesgyűjteményében — 7. közlemény]. A Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet évi jelentése az 1980. évről, 385–394 (in Hungarian with German summary).

Kretzoi M. 1983: Wirbeltier-Indexformen im ungarischen Jungneozoikum. Hipparion [Gerinces indexfajok felső-neozói rétegtanunkban. Hipparion]. A Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet évi jelentése az 1981. évről, 513–521 (in Hungarian with German summary).

Kretzoi M. 1985: Sketch of the biochronology of the Late Cenozoic in Central Europe. In: Kretzoi M. & Pécsi M. (Eds.): Problems of the Neogene and Quaternary in the Carpathian Basin. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 3–20.

Kretzoi M. 1987. Terrestrische Biochronologie/Stratigraphie des Karpathenbeckens im Pannonien (s. l.). A Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet évkönyve 69, 409–422.

Lacombat F. & Mörs T. 2008: The northernmost occurrence of the rare Late Pliocene rhinoceros Stephanorhinus jeanvireti (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). Neu. Jb. Geol. Paläont,. Abh. 249, 2, 157–165.

Magyar I., Lantos M., Ujszászi K. & Kordos L. 2007: Magnetostratigraphic, seismic and biostratigraphic correlations of the Upper Miocene sediments in the northwestern Pannonian Basin System. Geol. Carpathica 58, 3, 277–290.

Magyar I., Radivojevic D., Sztanó O., Synak R., Ujszászi K. & Pócsik M. 2013: Progradation of the paleo-Danube shelf margin across the Pannonian Basin during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene. Glob. Planet. Change 103, 168–173.

Markov G. 2008: The Turolian proboscideans (Mammalia) of Europe: preliminary observations. Hist. Natur. Bulgarica 19, 153–178.

Mazo A.V. 1995: Stephanorhinus etruscus (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) en el Villafranquiense inferior de Las Higueruelas, Alcolea de Calatrava (Ciudad Real). Estudios Geol. 51, 285–290.

Mucha B.B. 1980: A new species of yoke-toothed mastodont from the Pliocene of Southwest USSR. In: Quaternary and Neogene faunas and floras of Moldavskaya SSR. Shtiintsa, Kishinev, 19–26 (in Russian).

Osborn H.F. 1900: Phylogeny of the rhinoceroses of Europe. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 13, 229–267.

Owen R.M. 1848: Description of teeth and proportion of jaws of two extinct Anthracotherioid quadrupeds (Hyopotamus vectianus and Hyopotamus bovinus) discovered by the Marchioness of Hastings in the Eocene deposits on the N.W. coast of the Isle of Wight: with an attempt to develop Cuvier’s idea of the classification of pachyderms by the number of their toes. Quart. J. Geol. Soc. London 4, 103–141.

Pandolfi L. 2013: New and revised occurrences of Dihoplus megarhinus (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) in the Pliocene of Italy. Swiss J. Palaeont. 132, 239–255.

Pandolfi L. 2015a: Persiatherium rodleri, gen. et sp. nov. (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) from the upper Miocene of Maragheh (northwestern Iran). J. Vertebr. Paleontol. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2015.1040118.

Pandolfi L. 2015b: Sistematica e filogenesi dei Rhinocerotini (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae). Tesi di Dottorato, Università degli Studi di Roma Tre, Roma, ciclo XXVII, 1–319 (in Italian).

Pandolfi L. & Marra F. 2015: Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from the chrono-stratigraphically constrained Pleistocene deposits of the urban area of Rome (Central Italy). Geobios 48, 2, 147–167.

Pandolfi L. & Petronio C. 2011: Stephanorhinus etruscus (Falconer, 1868) from Pirro Nord (Apricena, Foggia, Southern Italy) with notes on the late Early Pleistocene rhinoceroses of Italy. Riv. Ital. Paleont. Stratigr. 117, 1, 173–187.

Pandolfi L. & Tagliacozzo A. 2015: Stephanorhinus hemitoechus (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) from the Late Pleistocene of Valle Radice (Sora, Central Italy) and re-evaluation of the morphometric variability of the species in Europe. Geobios 48, 2, 169–191.

Pandolfi L., Grossi F. & Frezza V. 2015a: New insights into the Pleistocene deposits of Monte delle Piche, Rome, and remarks on the biochronology of continental Hippopotamus (Mammalia, Hippopotamidae) and Stephanorhinus etruscus (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) in Italy. Estudios Geol. 71, 1, DOI: 10.3989/egeol.41796.337.

Pandolfi L., Gasparik M. & Piras P. 2015b: Earliest occurrence of “Dihoplus” megarhinus (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae) in Europe (Late Miocene, Pannonian Basin, Hungary). Ann. Paléont. 101, 4, 325–339.

Pandolfi L., Kotsakis T., Maiorino L., Petronio C. & Piras P. 2014: Systematics and Phylogeny of Rhinocerotini (Mammalia, Rhinocerotidae). Society of Vertebrate Paleontology 74th Annual Meeting, Berlin 5-8 November 2014, Abstract Book, 201.

Pethő G. 1885: Über die Fossilien Säugethier-Überreste von Baltavár. Jb. Kgl. Ungar. Geol. Reichsanst. 1884, 63–73.

Radulescu C. & Samson P.M. 1985: Pliocene and Pleistocene mammalian biostratigraphy in South-Eastern Transylvania (Romania). Trav. Inst. Spéol. “Emile Racovitza”, Bucuresti XXIV, 85–95.

Simonelli V. 1897: I rinoceronti fossili del museo di Parma. Palaeontogr. Italica 3, 89–136.

Suess E. 1861: Über die grossen Raubthiere der österreichischen Tertiär-Ablagerungen. Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 43, 217–235.

Šujan M., Rybár S., Šarinová K., Kováč M., Vlačiky M. & Zervanová J. 2013: Uppermost Miocene to Quaternary accumulation history at the Danube Basin eastern flanks. In: Fodor L. & Kövér Sz. (Eds.): 11th Meeting of the Central European Tectonic Studies Group (CETeG). Abstract book, Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary, Budapest, 66–68.

Sztanó O., Szafián P., Magyar I., Horányi A., Bada G., Hughes D.W., Hoyer D.L. & Wallis R.J. 2013a: Aggradation and progradation controlled clinothems and deep-water sand delivery model in the Neogene lake Pannon, Makó Trough, Pannonian Basin, SE Hungary. Glob. Planet. Change 103, 149–167.

Sztanó O., Magyar I., Szónoky M., Lantos M., Müller P., Lenkey L., Katona L. & Csillag G. 2013b: Tihany Formation in the surroundings of Lake Balaton: type locality, depositional setting and stratigraphy. Földt. Közl. 143, 7398 (in Hungarian).

Titov V.V. 2008: Late Pliocene large mammals from Northeastern Sea of Azov Region. SSC RAS Publishing, Rostov-on-Don, 1–264 (in Russian).

Vlačiky M., Sliva Ľ., Tóth Cs., Karol M. & Zervanová J. 2008: The fauna and sedimentology of the locality Nová Vieska (Villafranchian, SR) [Fauna a sedimentológia lokality Nová Vieska (vilafrank, SR)]. Acta Mus. Morav., Sci. Geol. 93, 229–244 (in Slovak with English summary).

Wagner A. 1857: Neue Beiträge zur Kenntniss der fossilen Säugthier-Ueberreste von Pikermi. Abh. Köln. Bayer. Akad. Wissensch. II. Cl., 8, 1, 109–158.

Wijbrans J., Németh K., Martin U. & Balogh K. 2007: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of Neogene phreatomagmatic volcanism in the western Pannonian Basin, Hungary. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 164, 193–204.

Geologica Carpathica

The Journal of Geological Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.169
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.431

CiteScore 2017: 1.26

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.551
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.836

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 87 87 15
PDF Downloads 44 44 8