Distribution of elements among minerals of a single (muscovite-) biotite granite sample – an optimal approach and general implications

Open access


The petrography and mineral chemistry of the coarse-grained, weakly porphyritic (muscovite-) biotite Říčany granite (Variscan Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex, Bohemian Massif) were studied in order to assess the distribution of major and trace elements among its minerals, with consequences for granite petrogenesis and availability of geochemical species during supergene processes. It is demonstrated that chemistry-based approaches are the best suited for modal analyses of granites, especially methods taking into account compositions of whole-rock samples as well as their mineral constituents, such as constrained least-squares algorithm. They smooth out any local variations (mineral zoning, presence of phenocrysts, schlieren…) and are robust in respect to the presence of phenocrysts or fabrics. The study confirms the notion that the accessory phases play a key role in incorporation of many elements during crystallization of granitic magmas. Especially the REE seem of little value in petrogenetic modelling, unless the role of accessories is properly assessed and saturation models for apatite, zircon, monazite±rutile carefully considered. At the same time, the presence of several P-, Zr- and LREE-bearing phases may have some important consequences for saturation thermometry of apatite, zircon and monazite.

Albarède F. 1995: Introduction to geochemical modeling. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1-543.

Anderson J.L., Barth A.P., Wooden J.L. & Mazdab F. 2008: Thermometers and thermobarometers in granitic systems. In: Putirka K.D. & Tepley III F.J. (Eds.): Minerals, inclusions and volcanic processes. Mineral. Soc. Amer.; Geochem. Soc. Rev. Miner. Geochem., Washington 69, 121-142.

Bea F. 1996: Residence of REE, Y, Th and U in granites and crustal protoliths; implications for the chemistry of crustal melts. J. Petrology 37, 521-552.

Bish D.L. & Post J.E. 1989: Modern powder diffraction. Mineral. Soc. Amer. Rev. Miner., Washington 20, 1-369.

Boynton W.V. 1984: Cosmochemistry of the rare earth elements: meteorite studies. In: Henderson P. (Ed.): Rare earth element geochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 63-114.

Chayes F. 1954: The theory of thin-section analysis. J. Geol. 62, 92-101.

Chayes F. 1965: Reliabilty of point counting results. Amer. J. Sci. 263, 719-724.

Chayes F. & Fairbairn H.W. 1951: A test of the precision of thin-section analysis by point counter. Amer. Mineralogist 36, 704-712.

Debon F. & Le Fort P. 1988: A cationic classification of common plutonic rocks and their magmatic associations: principles, method, applications. Bull. Minéral. 111, 493-510.

De La Roche H., Leterrier J., Grandclaude P. & Marchal M. 1980: A classification of volcanic and plutonic rocks using R1R2-diagram and major element analyses - its relationships with current nomenclature. Chem. Geol. 29, 183-210.

Evans O.C. & Hanson G.N. 1993: Accessory-mineral fractionation of rare-earth element (REE) abundances in granitoid rocks. Chem. Geol. 110, 69-93.

Gabriel A. & Cox E.P. 1929: A staining method for the quantitative determination of certain rock minerals. Amer. Mineralogist 14, 290-292.

García de Madinabeitia S., Sánchez Lorda M.E. & Gil Ibarguchi J.I. 2008: Simultaneous determination of major to ultratrace elements in geological samples by fusion-dissolution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. Anal. Chim. Acta 625, 117-130.

Geisler T., Pidgeon R.T., van Bronswijk W. & Kurtz R. 2002: Transport of uranium, thorium, and lead in metamict zircon under low-temperature hydrothermal conditions. Chem. Geol. 191, 141-154.

Geisler T., Pidgeon R.T., Kurtz R., van Bronswijk W. & Schleicher H. 2003: Experimental hydrothermal alteration of partially metamict zircon. Amer. Mineralogist 88, 1496-1513.

Gromet L.P. & Silver L.T. 1983: Rare earth element distribution among minerals in a granodiorite and their petrogenetic implications. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 47, 925-939.

Hanson G.N. 1978: The application of trace elements to the petrogenesis of igneous rocks of granitic composition. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 38, 26-43.

Harrison T.M. & Watson E.B. 1984: The behavior of apatite during crustal anatexis: equilibrium and kinetic considerations. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48, 1467-1477.

Hejtman B. 1948: Directory of quarries in Czechoslovakia, No. 26, Český Brod. [Soupis lomů ČSR, č. 26, okres Český Brod.] SGÚ ČSR, Praha, 1-71 (in Czech).

Hollocher K. 2013: Staining feldspars in thin section. Accessed on 23 December 2013 at http://minerva.union.edu/hollochk/ c_petrology/staining_feldspars.htm Holub F.V., Machart J. & Manová M. 1997: The Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex: geology, chemical composition and genetic interpretation. Sbor. Geol. Věd, ložisk. Geol. Mineral. 31, 27-50.

Hoskin P.W.O. & Schaltegger U. 2003: The composition of zircon and igneous and metamorphic petrogenesis. In: Hanchar J.M. & Hoskin P.W.O. (Eds.): Zircon. Mineral. Soc. Amer.; Geochem. Soc. Rev. Miner. Geochem., Washington 53, 27-62.

Hutchison C.S. 1974: Laboratory handbook of petrographic techniques. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1-527.

Hutchison C.S. 1975: The norm, its variations, their calculation and relationships. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 55, 243-256.

Jain N. & Warnes G.R. 2006: Ballon plot. R News 6, 35-38.

Janoušek V. 2006: Saturnin, R language script for application of accessory- mineral saturation models in igneous geochemistry. Geol. Carpathica 57, 131-142.

Janoušek V., Farrow C.M. & Erban V. 2006: Interpretation of whole-rock geochemical data in igneous geochemistry: introducing Geochemical Data Toolkit (GCDkit). J. Petrology 47, 1255-1259.

Janoušek V., Rogers G., Bowes D.R. & Vaňková V. 1997: Cryptic trace-element variation as an indicator of reverse zoning in a granitic pluton: the Říčany granite, Czech Republic. J. Geol. Soc., London 154, 807-815.

Janoušek V., Bowes D.R., Braithwaite C.J.R. & Rogers G. 2000a: Microstructural and mineralogical evidence for limited involvement of magma mixing in the petrogenesis of a Hercynian high-K calc-alkaline intrusion: the Kozárovice granodiorite, Central Bohemian Pluton, Czech Republic. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb., Earth Sci. 91, 15-26.

Janoušek V., Bowes D.R., Rogers G., Farrow C.M. & Jelínek E. 2000b: Modelling diverse processes in the petrogenesis of a composite batholith: the Central Bohemian Pluton, Central European Hercynides. J. Petrology 41, 511-543.

Janoušek V., Braithwaite C.J.R., Bowes D.R. & Gerdes A. 2004: Magma-mixing in the genesis of Hercynian calc-alkaline granitoids: an integrated petrographic and geochemical study of the Sázava intrusion, Central Bohemian Pluton, Czech Republic. Lithos 78, 67-99.

Johannsen A. 1932, 1937, 1938, 1939: A descriptive petrography of the igneous rocks. University of Chicago Press.

Katzer F. 1888: Geologische Beschreibung der Umgebung von Říčan. Jb. Geol. Reichsanst. 38, 355-417.

Kodymová A. & Vejnar Z. 1974: Accessoric heavy minerals in plutonic rocks of the Central Bohemian Pluton. [Akcesorické těžké minerály v hlubinných horninách středočeského plutonu.] Sbor. Geol. Věd, ložisk. Geol. Mineral. 16, 89-128 (in Czech).

Kretz R. 1983: Symbols for rock-forming minerals. Amer. Mineralogist 68, 277-279.

Laube N., Hergarten S. & Neugebauer H.J. 1996: MODUSCALC - a computer program to calculate mode from a geochemical rock analysis. Comput. and Geosci. 22, 631-637.

Le Maitre R.W. 1981: GENMIX - a generalized petrological mixing model program. Comput. and Geosci. 7, 229-247.

Le Maitre R.W. 2002: Igneous rocks: a classification and glossary of terms: recommendations of the International Union of Geological Sciences, subcommission on the systematics of igneous rocks. Cambridge University Press, 1-236.

Madsen I.C. & Scarlett N.V.Y. 2009: Quantitative phase analysis.

In: Dinnebier R.E. & Bilinge S.J.J. (Eds.): Powder diffraction: Theory and practise. RCS Publishing, Cambridge, 298-331.

Marshall D.J. 1988: Cathodoluminescence of geological materials. Unwin Hyman, Boston, 1-145.

Mielke P. & Winkler H.G.F. 1979: Eine bessere Berechnung der Mesonorm für granitische Gesteine. Neu. Jb. Mineral., Mh., 471-480.

Miller C.F. & Mittlefehldt D.W. 1984: Extreme fractionation in felsic magma chambers; a product of liquid-state diffusion or fractional crystallization? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 68, 151-158.

Minařík L. & Houdková Z. 1986: Element distribution during the weathering of granitic rocks and formation of soils in the area of the massif of Říčany. [Distribuce prvků při zvětrávání hornin a tvorbě půd v oblasti říčanského masívu.] Acta Montana 74, 59-78 (in Czech, with English summary).

Minařík L. & Kvídová O. 1986: Fractionation of rare earth elements during weathering of rocks. [Frakcionace vzácných zemin při zvětrávání hornin.] Acta Montana 72, 63-74 (in Czech, with English summary).

Minařík L., Žigová A., Bendl J., Skřivan P. & Šastný M. 1998: The behaviour of rare-earth elements and Y during the rock weathering and soil formation in the Říčany granite massif, Central Bohemia. Sci. Total Environ. 215, 101-111.

Minařík L., Skřivan P., Novák J.K., Fottová D. & Navrátil T. 2003: Distribution, cycling and impact of selected inorganic contaminants in ecosystem of the Lesní potok catchment, the Czech Republic. Ekologia, Bratislava 22, 305-322.

Mittlefehldt D.W. & Miller C.F. 1983: Geochemistry of the Sweetwater Wash Pluton, California; implications for “anomalous” trace element behavior during differentiation of felsic magmas. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 47, 109-124.

Montel J.M. 1993: A model for monazite/melt equilibrium and application to the generation of granitic magmas. Chem. Geol. 110, 127-146.

Navrátil T. 2003: Biogeochemistry of the II.A group elements in a forested catchment. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Charles University in Prague, 1-113.

Navrátil T., Skřivan P., Minařík L. & Žigová A. 2002: Beryllium geochemistry in the Lesní Potok Catchment (Czech Republic), 7 years of systematic study. Aquat. Geochem. 8, 121-133.

Navrátil T., Vach M., Skřivan P., Mihaljevič M. & Dobešová I. 2004: Deposition and fate of lead in a forested catchment, Lesní potok, Central Czech Republic. Water Air Soil Poll., Focus 4, 619-630.

Navrátil T., Shanley J.B., Skřivan P., Krám P., Mihaljevič M. & Drahota P. 2007: Manganese biogeochemistry in a Central Czech Republic catchment. Water Air Soil Poll. 186, 149-165.

Němec D. 1978: Genesis of aplite in the Říčany massif, central Bohemia. Neu. Jb. Mineral., Abh. 132, 322-339.

Niggli P. 1931: Die quantitative mineralogische Klassifikation der Eruptivgesteine. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 11, 296-364.

Orlov A. 1933: Contribution to the petrography of the Central Bohemian Granite Massif (the Říčany-Benešov-Milevsko-Písek region). [Příspěvek k petrografii středočeského žulového masívu (Říčansko-Benešovsko-Milevsko-Písecko).] Věst. St. Geol. Úst. Čs. Repl. 9, 135-144 (in Czech).

Paktunc A.D. 1998: MODAN: an interactive computer program for estimating mineral quantities based on bulk composition. Comput. and Geosci. 24, 425-431.

Palivcová M. 1965: The Central Bohemian Pluton - a petrographic review and an attempt at a new genetic interpretation. Krystalinikum 3, 99-131.

Palivcová M., Waldhausrová J., Ledvinková V. & Fatková J. 1992: Říčany granite (Central Bohemian Pluton) and its ocelli- and ovoids-bearing mafic enclaves. Krystalinikum 21, 33-66.

Pivec E. 1970: On the origin of phenocrysts of potassium feldspars in some granitic rocks of the Central Bohemian Pluton. Acta Univ. Carol, Geol. 1970, 11-25.

Pivec E. 1969: Residues of surface kaolinization in granite of Říčany. [Relikty povrchové kaolinizace v říčanské žule.] Čas. Mineral. Geol. 14, 61-67 (in Czech, with English summary).

Potts P.J. 1987: A handbook of silicate rock analysis. Blackie & Son Ltd., Glasgow and London, 1-622.

Robie R.A., Bethke P.M. & Beardsley K.M. 1967: Selected X-ray crystallographic data, molar volumes, and densities of minerals and related substances. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1248, Washington, 1-87.

Sawka W.N. 1988: REE and trace element variations in accessory minerals and hornblende from the strongly zoned McMurry Meadows Pluton, California. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb., Earth Sci. 79, 157-168.

Steinocher V. 1950: The position of some plutonic and dike rocks of the plutonic mass of Central Bohemia in P. Niggli’s quantitative mineralogical and chemical system. Part I. Sbor. St. Geol. Úst. Čs. Rep.,Odd. Geol. 17, 721-764.

Steinocher V. 1953: The position of some plutonic and dyke rocks of the Pluton of Central Bohemia in P. Niggli’s quantitative mineralogical and chemical system. Part II. Sbor. Ústř. Úst. Geol., Odd. Geol. 20, 241-288.

Streckeisen A. 1974: Classification and nomenclature of plutonic rocks. Geol. Rdsch. 63, 773-786.

Streckeisen A. & Le Maitre R.W. 1979: A chemical approximation to the modal QAPF classification of the igneous rocks. Neu. Jb. Mineral., Abh. 136, 169-206.

Taylor S.R. & McLennan S.M. 1995: The geochemical evolution of the continental crust. Rev. Geophys. 33, 241-265.

Trubač J., Žák J., Chlupáčová M. & Janoušek V. 2009: Magnetic fabric of the Říčany granite, Bohemian Massif: a record of helical magma flow? J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 181, 25-34.

Wark D.A. & Miller C.F. 1993: Accessory mineral behavior during differentiation of a granite suite: monazite, xenotime and zircon in the Sweetwater Wash pluton, southeastern California, U.S.A. Chem. Geol. 110, 49-67.

Watson E.B. & Harrison T.M. 1983: Zircon saturation revisited: temperature and composition effects in a variety of crustal magma types. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 64, 295-304.

Wright T.L. & Doherty P.C. 1970: A linear programming and least squares computer method for solving petrologic mixing problems. ol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 81, 1995-2008.

Žák J., Verner K., Janoušek V., Holub F.V., Kachlík V., Finger F., Hajná J., Tomek F., Vondrovic L. & Trubač J. (2014): A platekinematic model for the assembly of the Bohemian Massif constrained by structural relationships around granitoid plutons. n: Schulmann K., Martínez Catalán J.R., Lardeaux J.M., Janoušek V. & Oggiano G. (Eds.): The Variscan orogeny: Extent, timescale and the formation of the European Crust. Geol. oc. London, Spec. Publ. 405, 169-196. Doi: 10.1144/SP405.9

Geologica Carpathica

The Journal of Geological Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.169
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.431

CiteScore 2017: 1.26

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.551
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.836

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 79 79 18
PDF Downloads 30 30 8