Large-volume gravity flow deposits in the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin (Orava region, Slovakia): evidence for hyperpycnal river discharge in deep-sea fans

Open access

Abstract

The deep-water clastic systems of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin contain megabeds, which are developed in distinctive stratigraphic horizons and can be traced over long distances. These beds are characterized by great individual thickness (4-13 m), uniform lithology and internal structures. On the basis of their lithology, sedimentary structures and sequence development, the megabeds are characterized by 15 individual facies and interpreted from the viewpoint of flow hydrodynamics. The grain-size distribution and internal structures of the megabeds point to their deposition from uniform turbulent flows. The main controlling factor for generation of such large voluminous flows is inferred in the sea-level changes, when a relative rising of sea level during the Eocene/Oligocene boundary was responsible for long-lasting accumulation of the clastic supply at the basin margins. The large volume of detritus from river discharge and ravinement surfaces of flooded land was accumulated on the shore and in the conduit heads where the sediment was remobilized by other triggers. The flows generated by catastrophic floods during the early Rupelian sea-level lowstand are thought to be the most probably triggering mechanism. The large highly erosive hyperpycnal flows from flooding rivers could erode accumulated deposits in the conduit or on steeper basin-margin slopes and could cause progressive increase of the sand volume in the flow. Conduit flushing appears to be the most probable source of sediment for the very large voluminous flows that were responsible for deposition of the Orava megabeds

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abreu V.S. & Haddad G.A. 1998: Glacioeustatic fluctuations: the mechanism linking stable isotope events and sequence stratigraphy from the Early Oligocene to Middle Miocene. In: de Graciansky P.-C. Hardenbol J. Jacquin T. & Vail P.R. (Eds.): Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy of European basins. SEPM Spec. Publ. 60 245-259.

  • Allen J.R.L. 1970: A quantitative model of climbing ripples and their cross-laminated deposits. Sedimentology 14 5-26.

  • Anastasakis G. 2007: The anatomy and provenance of thick volcaniclastic flows in the Cretan Basin South Aegean Sea. Mar. Geol. 240 113-135.

  • Anastasakis G. & Pe-Piper G. 2006: An 18 m thick volcaniclastic interval in Pantelleria Trough Sicily Channel deposited from a large gravitative flow during the Green Tuff eruption. Mar. Geol. 231 201-219.

  • Andresen A. & Bjerrum L. 1967: Slides in subaqueous slopes in loose sands and silts. In: Richards A.F. (Ed.): Marine geotechnique. University of Illinois Press Urbana 221-239.

  • Baráth I. & Kováč M. 1995: Systematics of gravity-flow deposits in the marginal Paleogene formations between Markušovce and Kluknava villages (Hornád Depression). Miner. SlovacaGeovest. 27 1 6.

  • Bartholdy J. Bellas S.M. Cosovic V. Fucek V.P. & Keupp H. 1999: Processes controlling Eocene mid-latitude larger Foraminifera accumulations: modelling of the stratigraphic architecture of a fore-arc basin (Podhale Basin Poland). Geol. Carpathica 50 6 435-448.

  • Bąk K. 2005: Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Egerian flysch sediments in the Silesian nappe Outer Carpathians Polish part of the Bieszczady Mountains. Ann. Soc. Geol. Pol. 75 71-93.

  • Berggren W.A. & Pearson P.N. 2005: A revised tropical to subtropical Paleogene planktonic foraminiferal zonation. J. Foram. Res. 35 4 279-298.

  • Berggren W.A. Olsson R.K. & Reyment R.A. 1967: Origin and development of the foraminiferal genus Pseudohastigerina Banner & Blow 1959. Micropaleontology 13 3 265-288.

  • Berggren W.A. Kent D.V. Swisher C.C. III. & Aubry M.P. 1995: A revised Cenozoic geochronology and chronostratigraphy. In: Berggren W.A. Kent D.V. Aubry M. & Hardenbol J. (Eds.): Geochronology time scales and global correlation. SEPMSpec. Publ. 54 129-212.

  • Best J.L. & Bridge J.S. 1992: The morphology and amplitude of low amplitude bedwaves upon upper-stage plane beds and the preservation of planar laminae. Sedimentology 39 737-752.

  • Biely A. Bezák V. Elečko M. Kaličiak M. Konečný V. Lexa J. Mello J. Nemčok J. Potfaj M. Rakús M. Vass D. Vozár J. & Vozárová A. 1996: Geological map of Slovakia (1: 500000). Geological Survey of Slovak Republic Bratislava.

  • Blair T.C. & McPherson J.G. 1999: Grain-size and textural classification of coarse sedimentary particles. J. Sed. Res. 69 1 6-19.

  • Bouma A.H. 1962: Sedimentology of some flysch deposits. Elsevier Amsterdam 1-168.

  • Bouma A.H. 1987: Megaturbidite: an acceptable term? Geo-Mar. Lett. 7 63-67.

  • Bubík M. & Poul I. 2010: Sediments of the Pouzdřany Unit in the HV-1 well Dolní Věstonice. Zpr. Geol. Výzk. v Roce 2009 16-18.

  • Buček S. Salaj J. Köhler E. & Gross P. 1998: A sudden deepening of the Central Western Carpathian area in the Upper Eocene. Zem. Plyn Nafta 43 1 173-177.

  • Bugge T. Befring S. Belderson R.H. Eidvin T. Jansen E. Kenyon N.H. Holtedahl H. & Sejrup H.P. 1987: A threestage submarine slide off Norway. Geo-Mar. Lett. 7 191-198.

  • Bugge T. Belderson R.H. & Kenyon N.H. 1988: The Storegga slide. Roy. Soc. (London) Philosophical Trans. 325 357-388.

  • Carter L. Milliman J.D. Talling P.J. Gavey R. & Wynn R.B. 2012: Near-synchronous and delayed initiation of long run-out submarine sediment flows from a record-breaking river flood offshore Taiwan. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 L12603 Doi:10.1029/2012GL051172

  • Cita M.B. Camerlenghi A. Kastens K.A. & McCoy F.W. 1984: New findings of the Bronze age Homogenites in the Ionian Sea: geodynamic implications for the Mediterranean. Mar.Geol. 55 47-62.

  • Cita M.B. Camerlenghi A. & Rimoldi B. 1996: Deep sea tsunami deposits in the eastern Mediterranean: new evidence and depositional models. Sed. Geol. 104 155-173.

  • Csontos L. Nagymarosy A. Horváth F. & Kováč M. 1992: Tertiary evolution of the Intra-Carpathian area: a model. Tectonophysics 208 1-3 221-241.

  • Dabrio C.J. 1990: Fan-delta facies associations in Late Neogene and Quaternary basins of southeastern Spain. In: Colella A. & Prior D.B. (Eds.): Coarse-grained deltas. Int. Assoc. Sed. Spec. Publ. 10 91-111.

  • Davies N.S. Turner P. & Sansom I.J. 2004: Soft-sediment deformation structures in the Late Silurian Stubdal Formation: the result of seismic triggering. Norwegian J. Geol. 1 85 233-243.

  • De Groot M.B. Silvis F. van Rossum H. & Koster M.J. 1987: Liquefied sand flowing over a gentle slope. In: Hanrahan E.T. Orr T.L.L. & Widdis T.F. (Eds.): Proceedings IXth European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Balkema Rotterdam 2 595-598.

  • Doyle L.J. 1987: Anomalously large marine sedimentary units deposited in a single mass wasting event. Geo-Mar. Lett. 7 2 59-61.

  • Doyle L.J. & Bourrouilh R. 1986: Carbonate megaturbidites - examples from the Gulf of Mexico and the French Pyrenees. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull. 70 583.

  • Dypvik H. & Jansa L. 2003: Sedimentary signatures and processes during marine bolide impacts: a review: Sed. Geol. 161 309-337.

  • Emdal A. Janbu N. & Sand K. 1996: The shoreline slide at Lade. In: Senneset Y. (Ed.): Landslides. Balkema Rotterdam 533-538.

  • Filo I. & Siráňová Z. 1996: The Tomášovce Member - a new lithostratigraphic unit of the Subtatric Group. Geol. Práce Spr. 102 41-49.

  • Filo I. & Siráňová Z. 1998: Hornád and Chrasť Member - new regional lithostratigraphic units of the Sub-Tatric Group. Geol. Práce Spr. 103 35-51.

  • Fukushima Y. Parker G. & Pantin H.M. 1985: Prediction of ignitive turbidity currents in Scripps submarine canyon. Mar. Geol. 67 55-81.

  • Gedl P. 2000: Biostratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Podhale Palaeogene (Inner Carpathians Poland) in the light of palynological studies. Stud. Geol. Pol. 117 155-303.

  • Gee M.J.R. Gawthorpe R.L. & Friedmann S.J. 2006: Triggering and evolution of a giant Submarine Landslide Offshore Angola Revealed by 3D seismic stratigraphy and geomorphology. J. Sed. Res. 76 1 9-19.

  • Ghibaudo G. 1992: Subaqueous sediment gravity flow deposits: practical criteria for their field description and classification. Sedimentology 39 423-454.

  • Golab J. 1959: On the geology of the western Podhale flysch area. Biul. Inst. Geol. Warszawa 1-149.

  • Gross P. Köhler E. & Borza K. 1982: Conglomerate submarine fans from the Central-Carpathians Paleogene near Pucov. Geol. Práce Spr. 77 75-86.

  • Gross P. Köhler E. & Samuel O. 1984: A new lithostratigraphic subdivision of the Central Carpathian Paleogene. Geol. PráceSpr. 81 103-117.

  • Gross P. Köhler E. Mello J. Haško J. Halouzka R. & Nagy A. 1993: Geology of Southern and Eastern Orava. D. Štúr Inst. Geol. Bratislava 1-292.

  • Haq B.U. Hardenbol J. & Vail P.R. 1988: Mesozoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and cycles of sea-level change. In: Wilgus C.K. Hastings B.S. Ross C.A. Posamentier H. van Wagoner & Kendall C.G. (Eds.): Sea-level changes: an integrated approach. SEPM Spec. Publ. 42 71-108.

  • Hein F.J. & Syvitski J.P.M. 1992: Sedimentary environments and facies in an arctic basin Itirbilung Fiord Baffin Island Canada. Sed. Geol. 81 17-45.

  • Hieke W. 1984: A thick Holocene homogenite from the Ionian Abyssal Plain (Eastern Mediterranean). Mar. Geol. 55 63-78.

  • Hiscott R.N. 1994: Traction-carpet stratification in turbidites - fact or fiction? J. Sed. Res. A64 204-208.

  • Hughes Clarke J.E. Shor A.N. Piper D.J.W. & Mayer L.A. 1990: Large scale current-induced erosion and deposition in the path of the 1929 Grand Banks turbidity current. Sedimentology 37 613-629.

  • Iturralde-Vinent M.A. 1992: A short note on the Cuban late Maastrichtian megaturbidite (an impact-derived deposit?). EarthPlanet. Sci. Lett. 109 225-228.

  • Janočko J. & Jacko S. 1999: Marginal and deep-sea deposits of Central- Carpathian Paleogene Basin Spiš Magura region Slovakia: implication for basin history. Slovak Geol. Mag. 4 4 281-292.

  • Janočko J. & Jacko S. Jr. 2001: Turbidite deposit systems of the Central-Carpathian Paleogene Basin. GeoLines 13 133-140.

  • Janočko J. Hamršmíd B. Jacko S. & Siráňová Z. 1998: Suprafan and channel - and levee deposits at Tichý Potok section Levoča Mts.; Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin Slovakia. Slovak Geol. Mag. 4 1 3-15.

  • Johnson K.S. Paull C.K. Barry J.P. & Chavez F.P. 2001: A decadal record of underflows from a coastal river into the deep sea. Geology 29 1019-1022.

  • Jopling A.V. & Walker R.G. 1968: Morphology and origin of ripple- drift cross-lamination with examples from the Pleistocene of Massachusetts. J. Sed. Petrology 38 971-984.

  • Karlsrud R. & Edgers L. 1982: Some aspects of submarine slope stability. In: Saxov S. & Nieuwenhuis J.K. (Eds.): Marine slides and other mass movements NATO conference series IV Marine sciences. Plenum New York 6 61-81.

  • Kennett J.P. & Barker P.F. 1990: Latest Cretaceous to Cenozoic climate and oceanographic developments in the Weddell Sea Antarctica: an ocean-drilling perspective. Proceedings of theOcean Drilling Program Scientific Results 113 937-960.

  • Krhovský J. Adamová J. Hladíková J. & Maslowská H. 1992: Paleoenvironmental changes across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary in the Ždánice and Pouzdřany units (Western Carpathians Czechoslovakia): the long-term trend and orbitally forced changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. In: Hamršmíd B. & Young J. (Eds.): Nannoplankton Research. Knihovnička ZPN 14b 2 105-187.

  • Kuenen P.H. 1958: Experiments in geology. Geol. Mag. 23 1-28.

  • Kulka A. 1985: Arni sedimentological model in the Tatra Eocene. Geol. Quart. 29 31-64.

  • Labaume P. Mutti E. & Seguret M. 1987: Megaturbidites: a depositional model from the Eocene of the SW Pyrenean Foreland Basin Spain. Geo-Mar. Lett. 7 91-101.

  • Lastras G. Canals M. Hughes-Clarke J.E. Moreno A. De Batist M. Masson D.G. & Cochonat P. 2002: Seafloor imagery from the BIG’95 debris flow western Mediterranean. Geology 30 871-874.

  • Leckie M.R. Farnham CH. & Schmidt M.G. 1993: Oligocene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of hole 803D (Ontong Java Plateau) and hole 628A (Little Bahama Bank) and comparison with the southern high latitudes. Proccedings of theOcean Drilling Program Scientific Results 130 113-136.

  • Li Q. 1987: Origin phylogenetic development and systematic taxonomy of the Tenuitella plexus (Globigerinitidae Globigerininina). J. Foram. Res. 17 4 298-320.

  • Lowe D.R. 1975: Water escape structures in coarse grained sediments. Sedimentology 22 157-204.

  • Lowe D.R. 1976: Subaqueous liquefied and fluidized sediment flows and their deposits. Sedimentology 23 285-308.

  • Lowe D.R. 1982: Sediment gravity flows. II. Depositional models with special reference to the deposits of high-density turbidity currents. J. Sed. Petrology 52 279-297. Lowe D.R. & Guy M. 2000: Slurry-flow deposits in the Britannia Formation (Lower Cretaceous) North Sea: a new perspective on the turbidity current and debris flow problem. Sedimentology 47 31-70.

  • Lowe D.R. & LoPiccolo R.D. 1974: The characteristics and origins of dish and pillar structures. J. Sed. Petrology 44 484-501.

  • Lrnne I. & Nemec W. 2004: High-arctic fan delta recording deglaciation and environmental disequilibrium. Sedimentology 51 553-589.

  • Marjanac T. 1996: Deposition of megabeds (megaturbidites) and sea-level change in a proximal part of the Eocene-Miocene flysch of central Dalmatia (Croatia). Geology 24 543-546.

  • Marschalko R. 1970: The research of sedimentary textures structures and palaeocurrent analysis of basal formations (Central Western Carpathian Paleogene N of Spišsko-gemerské rudohorie Mts.). Acta Geol. Geograph. Univ. ComenianaeGeol. 19 129-163.

  • Masson D.G. Huggett Q.J. & Brunsden D. 1993: The surface texture of the Saharan Debris Flow and some speculations on submarine debris flow processes. Sedimentology 40 583-598.

  • Maurya D.M. Rachna R. & Chamyal L.S. 1998: Seismically induced deformational structures (seismites) from the Mid-Late Holocene Terraces Lower Mahi Valley Gujurat. J. Geol. Soc. India 51 755-758.

  • McKee E.D. 1939: Some types of bedding in the Colorado River delta. J. Geol. 47 64-81.

  • McKee E.D. 1965: Experiments on ripple lamination. In: Middleton G.V. (Ed.): Primary sedimentary structues and their hydrodynamic interpretation. SEPM Spec. Publ. 12 66-83.

  • Milliman J.D. & Kao S.J. 2005: Hyperpycnal discharge of fluvial sediment to the ocean: Impact of super-typhoon Herb (1996) on Taiwanese rivers: J. Geol. 113 285-299.

  • Milliman J.D. Lin S.W. Kao S.J. Liu J.P. Liu C.S. Chiu J.K. & Lin Y.C. 2007: Short-term changes in seafloor character due to flood-derived hyperpycnal discharge: Typhoon Mindulle Taiwan July 2004. Geology 35 779-782.

  • Mitchell N.C. 2005: Channelled erosion through a marine dump site of dredge spoils at the mouth of the Puyallup River Washington State USA. Mar. Geol. 220 131-151.

  • Mohrig D. & Marr J.G. 2003: Constraining the efficiency of turbidity current generation from submarine debris flows and slides using laboratory experiments. Mar. Petrol. Geol. 20 883-899.

  • Moretti M. Alfaro P. Caselles O. & Canas J.A. 1999: Modelling seismites with a digital shaking table. Tectonophysics 304 369-383.

  • Mulder T. & Alexander J. 2001: The physical character of subaqueous sedimentary density flows and their deposits. Sedimentology 48 269-299.

  • Mulder T. & Syvitski J. 1995: Turbidity currents generated at river mouths during exceptional discharges to the World Oceans. J. Geol. 103 285-299.

  • Mutti E. 1992: Turbidite sandstones. San Donato Milanese. AGIPIstituto di Geologia Universita’ di Parma 1- 275.

  • Mutti E. Ricci Lucchi F. Seguret M. & Zanzucchi G. 1984: Seismoturbidites: a new group of resedimented deposits. Mar. Geol. 55 103-116.

  • Mutti E. Tinterri R. Di Biase D. Fava L. Mavilla N. Angella S. & Calabrese L. 2000: Delta-front associations of ancient flooddominated fluvio-deltaic systems. Rev. Soc. Geol. Espan~a 13 2 165-190.

  • Mutti E. Tinterri R. Benevelli G. Di Biase D. & Cavanna G. 2003: Deltaic mixed and turbidite sedimentation of ancient foreland basins. Mar. Petrol. Geol. 20 733-755.

  • Mutti E. Bernoulli D. Ricci Lucchi F. & Tinterri R. 2009: Turbidites and turbidity currents from alpine flysch to the exploration of continental margins. Sedimentology 56 267-318.

  • Muzzi Magalhaes P. & Tinterri R. 2010: Stratigraphy and depositional setting of Slurry and Contained (Reflected) Beds in the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (Langhian-Serravallian) Northern Apennines Italy. Sedimentology 57 1685-1720.

  • Nagymarosy A. & Voronina A.A. 1992: Calcareous nannoplankton from the Lower Maykopian beds (Early Oligocene Union of Independant States). In: Hamršmíd B. & Young J. (Eds.): Nannoplankton Research. Knihovnička ZPN 14b 2 189-221.

  • Neuwerth R. Suter F. Guzman C.A. & Gorin G.E. 2006: Soft-sediment deformation in a tectonically active area: The Plio- Pleistocene Zarzal Formation in the Cauca Valley (Western Colombia). Sed. Geol. 186 67-88.

  • Normark W.R. & Piper D.J.W. 1991: Initiation processes and flow evolution of turbidity currents: implications for the depositional record. In: Osborne R.H. (Ed.): From Shoreline to Abyss. SEPM Spec. Publ. 46 207-230.

  • Normark W.R. & Reid J.A. 2003: Extensive deposits of the Pacific Plate from Late Pleistocene North American glacial lake outbursts. J. Geol. 111 617-637.

  • Normark W.R. Piper D.J.W. & Sliter R. 2006: Sea-level and tectonic control of middle to late Pleistocene turbidite systems in Santa Monica Basin offshore California. Sedimentology 53 867-897.

  • Olariu C. Steel R. & Petter A.L. 2010: Delta-front hyperpycnal bed geometry and implications for reservoir modeling: Cretaceous Panther Tongue delta Book Cliff Utah. AAPG Bull. 94 6 819-845.

  • Olszewska B. 1985: Foraminifera of the Menilite Beds (Polish External Carpathians). Ann. Soc. Geol. Pol. 55 1 2 201-250.

  • Olszewska B. 1997: Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Polish Outer Carpathians: a record of basin geohistory. Ann. Soc. Geol. Pol. 67 325-337.

  • Olszewska B.W. & Wieczorek J. 1998: The Paleogene of the Podhale Basin (Polish Inner Carpathians) - micropaleontological perspective. Przegl. Geol. 46 721-728.

  • Owen G. 1987: Deformation processes in unconsolidated sands. In: Jones M.E. & Preston R.M.F. (Eds.): Deformation of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 29 11-24.

  • Owen G. 1996: Experimental soft-sediment deformation: structures formed by the liquefaction of unconsolidated sands and some ancient examples. Sedimentology 43 279-293.

  • Pauley J.C. 1995: Sandstone megabeds from the Tertiary of the North Sea. In: Hartley A.J. & Prosser D.J. (Eds.): Characterization of Deep Marine clastic systems. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 94 103-114.

  • Paull C.K. Mitts P. Ussler W. Keaten R. & Greene H.G. 2005: Trail of sand in upper Monterey Canyon offshore California. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 117 1134-1145.

  • Pearson P.N. & Wade B.G. 2009: Taxonomy and stable isotope paleoecology of well-preserved planktonic foraminifera from the Uppermost Oligocene of Trinidad. J. Foram. Res. 39 3 191-217.

  • Piper D.J.W. 1970: Transport and deposition of Holocene sediment on La Jolla deep sea fan California. Mar. Geol. 8 211-227.

  • Piper D.J.W. 1978: Turbidite muds and silts on deep-sea fans and abyssal plains. In: Stanley D.J. & Kelling G. (Eds.): Sedimentation in submarine Canyons fans and Trenches. DowdenHutchinson and Ross Stroudsburg 163-176.

  • Piper D.J.W. & Normark W.R. 1983: Turbidite depositional patterns and flow characteristics Navy Submarine Fan California Borderland. Sedimentology 30 681-694.

  • Piper D.J.W. & Normark W.R. 2001: Sandy fans from Hueneme to Amazon and beyond. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.Bull. 85 1407-1438.

  • Piper D.J.W. & Normark W.R. 2009: Processes that initiate turbidity currents and their influence on turbidites: A marine geology perspective. J. Sed. Res. 79 347-362.

  • Piper D.J.W. Shor A.N. & Hughes-Clarke J.E. 1988: The 1929 Grand Banks earthquake slump and turbidity current. In: Clifton H.E. (Ed.): Sedimentologic consequences of convulsive geologic events. Geol. Soc. Amer.Spec. Pap. 229 77-92.

  • Piper D.J.W. Cochonat P. & Morrison M. 1999: Sidescan sonar evidence for progressive evolution of submarine failure into a turbidity current: the 1929 Grand Banks event. Sedimentology 46 79-97.

  • Piper D.J.W. Shaw J. & Skene K.I. 2007: Stratigraphic and sedimentological evidence for late Wisconsinan subglacial outburst floods to Laurentian Fan. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 246 101-119.

  • Pippèrr M. & Reichenbacher B. 2010: Foraminifera from the borehole Altdorf (SE Germany): proxies from Ottnangian (early Miocene) palaeoenvironments of the Central Paratethys. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 289 62-80.

  • Plink-Björklund P. & Steel R.J. 2004: Initiation of turbidity currents: outcrop evidence for hyperpycnal flow turbidites. Sed. Geol. 165 29-52.

  • Postma G. 1995: Sea-level-related architectural trends in coarsegrained delta complexes. Sed. Geol. 98 1-4 3-12.

  • Potfaj M. 1998: Geodynamics of the Klippen Belt and Flysch belt in the Western Carpathians. In: Rakús M. (Ed.): Geodynamic development of the Western Carpathians. Dionýz Štúr Publ. Bratislava 143-154.

  • Powers M.C. 1953: A new roundness scale for sedimentary particles. J. Sed. Petrology 23 117-119.

  • Prior D.B. & Bornhold B.D. 1989: Submarine sedimentation on a developing Holocene fan delta. Sedimentology 36 6 1053-1076.

  • Ratschbacher L. Frisch W. Linzer H.G. Sperner B. Meschede M. Decker K. Nemčok M. Nemčok J. & Grygar J. 1993: The Pieniny Klippen Belt in the Western Carpathians of north eastern Slovakia: structural evidence for transpression. Tectonophysics 226 1-4 471-483.

  • Rebesco M. Della Vedova B. Cernobori L. & Aloisi G. 2000: Acoustic facies of Holocene megaturbidites in the Eastern Mediterranean. Sed. Geol. 135 65-74.

  • Reeder M.S. Rothwell R.G. & Stow D.A.V. 2000: Influence of sea level and basin physiography on emplacement of the late Pleistocene Herodotus Basin Megaturbidite (HBM) SE Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Petrol. Geol. 17 199-218.

  • Remacha E. & Fernández L.P. 2003: High-resolution correlation patterns in the turbidite systems of the Hecho Group (South- Central Pyrenees Spain). Mar. Petrol. Geol. 20 711-726.

  • Ricci Lucchi F. 1990: Turbidites in foreland and on-thrust basin of the northern Apennines. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 77 51-66.

  • Ricci Lucchi F. & Valmori E. 1980: Basin-wide turbidites in a Miocene oversupplied deep-sea plain: a geometrical analysis. Sedimentology 27 241-270.

  • Robin G. de Q. 1988: The Antarctic ice sheet its history and respondence to sea level and climatic changes over the past 100 million years. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 67 31-50.

  • Rodríguez-Pascua M.A. Calvo J.P. De Vicente G. & Gómez-Gras D. 2000: Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in lacustrine sediments of the Prebetic Zone SE Spain and their potential use as indicators of earthquake magnitudes during the Late Miocene. Sed. Geol. 135 117-135.

  • Rossetti D.F. 1999: Soft-sediment deformation structures in late Albian to Cenomanian deposits Sao Luis Basin northern Brazil: evidence for palaeoseismicity. Sedimentology 46 1065-1081.

  • Rothwell R.G. Reeder M.S. Anastasakis G. Stow D.A.V. Thomson J. & Kähler G. 2000: Low sea-level stand emplacement of megaturbidites in the western and eastern Mediterranean Sea.Sed. Geol. 135 75-88.

  • Samuel O. & Fusán O. 1992: Reconstruction of subsidence and sedimentation of Central Carpathian Paleogene. Západ. KarpatySér. Geol. 16 7-46.

  • Sérguret M. Labaume P. & Madariaga R. 1984: Eocene seismicity in the Pyrenees from megaturbidites in the South-Pyrenean basin (North Spain). Mar. Geol. 55 117-131.

  • Shanmugam G. & Moiola R.J. 1982: Eustatic control of turbidite deposition and winnowed turbidites. Geology 10 231-235.

  • Sliva Ľ. 2005: Sedimentary facies of the Central Carpathians Paleogene Basin in the Spišská Magura Mts. PhD Thesis Bratislava 1-137.

  • Soták J. 1998: Sequence stratigraphy approach to the Central Carpathian Paleogene (Eastern Slovakia): eustasy and tectonics as controls of deep-sea fan deposition. Slovak Geol. Mag. 4 185-190.

  • Soták J. 2010: Paleoenvironmental changes across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary: insights from the Central-Carpathian Paleogene Basin. Geol. Carpathica 61 5 1-26.

  • Soták J. & Starek D. 1999: Depositional stacking of the Central- Carpathian Paleogene Basin: sequences and cycles. Geol. Carpathica 50 69-72.

  • Soták J. Pereszlenyi M. Marschalko R. Milička J. & Starek D. 2001: Sedimentology and hydrocarbon habitat of the submarine- fan deposits of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin (NE Slovakia). Mar. Petrol. Geol. 18 87-114.

  • Soták J. Gedl P. Banská M. & Starek D. 2007: New stratigraphic data from the Paleogene formations of the Central Western Carpathians at the Orava region: Results of integrated micropaleontological study in the Pucov section. Miner. Slovaca 39 89-106.

  • Spezzaferri S. 1994: Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and taxonomy of the Oligocene and lower Miocene in the oceanic record: an overview. Palaeontogr. Ital. 81 1-187 tavv- 1-19.

  • Starek D. 2001: Sedimentology and paleodynamics of the Paleogene formations of the Central Western Carpathians in the Orava region. [Sedimentológia a paleodynamika paleogénnych formácií Centrálnych Západných Karpát na Orave.] PhD ThesisGeol. Inst. SAS Bratislava 1-152 (in Slovak).

  • Starek D. Andreyeva-Grigorovich A.S. & Soták J. 2000: Suprafan deposits of the Biely Potok Formation in the Orava region: Sedimentary facies and nannoplankton distribution. SlovakGeol. Mag. 6 2-3 188-190.

  • Starek D. Sliva Ľ. & Vojtko R. 2004: The channel-levee sedimentary facies and their synsedimentary deformation: a case study from Huty Formation of the Podtatranská skupina Group (Western Carpathians). Slovak Geol. Mag. 10 3 177-182.

  • Starek D. Sliva Ľ. & Vojtko R. 2012: Eustatic and tectonic control on late Eocene fan delta development (Orava Basin Central Western Carpathians). Geol. Quart. 56 1 67-84.

  • Švábenická L. Bubík M. & Stráník Z. 2007: Biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes on the transition from the Menilite to Krosno lithofacies (Western Carpathians Czech Republic). Geol. Carpathica 58 3 237-262.

  • Talling P.J. Amy L.A. & Wynn R.B. 2007: New insight into the evolution of large-volume turbidity currents: comparison of turbidite shape and previous modelling results. Sedimentology 54 737-769.

  • Tinterri R. Drago M. Consonni A. Davoli G. & Mutti E. 2003: Modeling subaqueous bipartite sediment gravity flows on the basis of outcrop constrains: first results. Mar. Petrol. Geol. 20 911-933.

  • Tripsanas E. Piper D.J.W. Jenner K.A. & Bryant W.R. 2008: Sedimentary characteristics of submarine mass-transport deposits: New perspectives from a corebased facies classification. Sedimentology 55 97-136.

  • Vail P.R. Mitchum R.M. Jr. & Thompson III. S. 1977: Seismic stratigraphy and global changes in sea-level. Part 3: Relative changes of sea level from coastal onlap. In: Payton C.E. (Ed.): Seismic stratigraphy - Application to hydrocarbon exploration. Mem. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 26 63-81.

  • Van Den Berg J.H. Van Gelder A. & Mastbergen D.R. 2002: The importance of breaching as a mechanism of subaqueous slope failure in fine sand. Sedimentology 49 81-95.

  • Yose L.A. & Haller P.L. 1989: Sea-level control of mixed-carbonatesiliciclastic gravity-flow deposition: Lower part of Keeler Canyon Formation (Pennsylvanian) southeastern California. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 101 427-439.

  • Zachos J.C. Lohmann K.C. Walker J.C.G. & Wise S.W. 1993: Abrupt climate change and transient climates during the Paleogene: a marine perspective. J. Geol. 101 191-223.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.699
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.676

CiteScore 2018: 1.76

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.627
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.203

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 152 76 2
PDF Downloads 86 56 3