Prevalence of Porcine Rotavirus Antigen and Associated Risk Factors in Pig-Raising Communities and Institutional Piggeries in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

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Abstract

Porcine rotaviruses are potential reservoirs for genetic exchange with human rotaviruses. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of porcine Rotavirus antigen and associated risk factors in pig-raising communities and institutional piggeries in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 376 faecal samples from pigs of all ages were collected from backyard and institutional piggeries by convenience sampling. The faecal samples collected were analysed using commercially available ELISA kit: BioK 343/2, for the antigenic diagnosis of rotavirus in porcine faeces. The overall prevalence of rotavirus antigen in pigs was 9.8 % (37/376). Piglets (10.4 %) had a higher prevalence than adults (9.1 %), while males (10.1 %) were more infected than females (9.6 %). Breed-specific prevalences revealed 5.9 %, 12 % and 15.5 % for local, exotic and cross-breeds, respectively. There was a significant association between breed (P < 0.05) (Odds Ratio OR = 2.927; 95 % Confidence Interval CI on OR = 1.288—6.653) and rotavirus infection. Management system revealed 14 % and 8.2 % prevalence for intensive and semi-intensive systems, respectively. There is evidence of Rotavirus infection (9.8 %) in pigs in Zaria, and the breed is a risk factor. This study provides the first data on the prevalence of rotavirus and risk factors of rotavirus infection among pigs in Zaria and environs, Kaduna state, Nigeria. There is a need to enlighten the public on the zoonotic implication and economic impacts of rotavirus infections.

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