Evaluation of Radiographic Coxofemoral Measurements in Boerboel Dogs

Open access

Abstract

This study compares the coxofemoral parameters used for the detection of hip dysplasia in humans with Norberg angles in Boerboel dogs. Twenty adult Boerboel dogs of both sexes (mean weight: 54.0 ± 7.54 kg) were used. They were premedicated with Xylazine (0.5 mg.kg−1) and induced with a propofol (4 mg.kg−1) injection. Extended antero-posterior radiographs of the hip were obtained with a digital X-ray machine. Linear Femoral Overlap (LFO), Norberg Angle (NA), Sourcil Sector Angle (SSA), Center Edge Angle (CEA) and Acetabular Index Angle (AIA) were determined. The inter- and intra-observer variability were calculated from inter- and intra- class correlation coefficient using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Fischer’s exact test was used to define the statistically significant difference in measurements between sexes and hip dysplasia status. A significant difference was set at P < 0.05. The intra-observer agreement was high for NA and CEA, moderate for AIA, but low for SSA and LFO, while inter-observer agreement was high for NA and CEA, moderate for LFO and AIA, but very low for SSA. There was no significant (P < 0.05) difference in the measured parameters between male and female Boerboels, however, NA and CEA were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in Boerboels with hip dysplasia than those with normal hips. The CEA does not have advantage over NA for radiographic screening of dogs with hip dysplasia.

1. Comhaire, F. H., Schoonjans, F. A., 2011: Canine hip dysplasia: The significance of the Norberg angle for healthy breeding. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 52, 536—542.

2. Coopman, F., Verhooeven, G., Paepe, D., Van Bree, H., Du-chateau, L., Saunders, J. H., 2007: Inter-observer agreement on the radiograhic assessment of canine hip dysplasia. Vlams Diergeneeskundig Tijddschrift, 76, 418—422.

3. Culp, W. N., Kapatkin, A. S., Gregor, T. P., 2006: Evaluation of the Norberg angle threshold: a comparison of Norberg angle and distraction index as measures of coxofemoral degenerative point susceptibility in seven breeds of dogs. Veterinary Surgery, 35, 453—459.

4. Fluckiger, M., 2007: Scoring radiographs for canine hip dysplasia: the three big organizations in the world. European Journal of Companion Animal Practice, 17, 135—140.

5. Gray, M. J., Kirberger, R. M., Spotswood, T. C., 2003: Cervical spondylomyelopathy (wobbler syndrome) in the Boerboel. Journal of South African Veterinary Association, 74, 104—110.

6. Guilliard, M., 2014: The PennHIP method of predicting canine hip dysplasia. In practice, 36, 66—71.

7. Hedhammar, Å. A., Indrebø, A., 2011: Rules, regulations, strategies and activities within the Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI) to promote canine genetic health. Vet. J., 189, 141—146.

8. Janssens, L., Ridder, M. D., Verhoeven, G., Gielen, I., Bree, H. V., 2014: Comparing Norberg angle, linear femoral overlap and surface femoral overlap in radiographic assessment of the canine hip joint. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 55, 135—138.

9. Lee, C. B., Kim, Y. J., 2012: Imaging hip dysplasia in the skeletally mature. Orthopaedic Clinic North America, 43, 329—342.

10. Meomartino, L., Fatone, G., Potenn, A., Brunetti, A., 2002: Morphometric assessment of the canine hip joint using the dorsal acetabular rim view and the centre-edge angle. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 43, 3—6.

11. Noordin, S., Umer, M., Hafeez, K., Nawaz, H., 2010: Developmental dysplasia of the hip. Orthopaedic Review, 2, 19.

12. Olsson, S. E., 1961: Roentgen examination of the hip joints of German Shepherd Dogs. Advances in Small Animal Practice, 3, 117—118.

13. Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA), 2017: Hip dysplasia statistics. HTTP://www.offa.org/stats. Accessed on 29th April, 2017, 2 pp.

14. Rocha, B. D, Tôrres, R. C. S., 2007: Ultrasonic and radiograhic study of laxity in hip joints of young dogs. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, 59, 90—96.

15. Simeonova, G., 2007: Hormonal and radiographic studies in German shepherd dogs with hip dysplasia. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 5, 59—64.

16. Smith, G. K, Biery, D. N., Gregor, T. P., 1990: New concepts of coxofemoral joint stability and the development of a clinical stress-radiographic method for quantitating hip joint laxity in the dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 196, 59—70.

17. Stanin, D., Pavlak, M., Vrbanac, Z., Potocnjak, D., 2011: Prevalence of hip dysplasia in dogs according to official radio-graphic screening in Croatia. Veterinarski Arhiv, 81, 235—248.

18. Stock, K. F., Distl, O., 2010: Simulation study on the effects of excluding offspring information for genetic evaluation versus using genomic markers for selection in dog breeding. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 127, 42—45.

19. Tomlinson, J. L., Cook, J. L., 2002: Effects of degree of acetabular rotation after triple pelvic osteotomy on the position of the femoral head in relationship to the acetabulum. Veterinary Surgery, 31, 398—403.

20. Trumpatori, B. J., Mathews, K. G., Simon, R. R., Robertson, I. D., 2003: Radiographic anatomy of the canine coxofemoral joint using the dorsal acetabular rim (DAR) view. Vet. Radiol. Ultrasound, 44, 526—532.

21. Verhooeven, G. E. C, Coopman, F., Duchateau, L., Bosmans, T., Van Ryssen, B., Van Bree, H., 2009: Interobserver agreement on the assessability of standard ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographs and its effect on agreement in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia and on routine FCI scoring. Veterinary Radiology, 50, 259—263.

22. Voss, H., Iversen, J. K., Charampilidis, G., Lund, B., 2015: Acetabular coverage in the Hip Joint. In Proceedings International Society of Hip Arthroscopy, Cambridge, UK, 32 pp.

23. Wylie, J. D, Kapron, A. L, Peters, C. L, Aoki, S. K, Maak, T. G., 2017: Relationship between the lateral Center-Edge Angle and 3-Dimensional Acetabular Coverage. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 5, 1—6.

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 13 13 13
PDF Downloads 9 9 9