The examination by Doppler ultrasonography provides haemodynamic information about blood flow velocity in a respective vessel. It specifies high- and lowresistance flow patterns. The aim of our study was to record the flow in a. carotis communis, a. femoralis and aa. renales in 16 adult clinically healthy dogs of small and medium size; characterize the types of vessels and also determine the pulsatility index (PI) and the resistive index (RI) of these vessels. The a. femoralis is a high-resistance vessel with a pronounced three-peak waveform. The aa. renales gives a typical picture of a low-resistance flow pattern. The characteristics of a. carotis communis involves different images of its branches a. carotis interna and a. carotis externa. In the investigated groups we observed a medium degree of pulsatility (atypical highresistance flow pattern with an absence of reverse flow). The mean measured values of indices for a. carotis communis were: left side PI 1.824 and RI 0.742; right side PI 1.891 and RI 0.746, and for aa. renales: PI 1.366 ± 0.04 and RI 0.684 ± 0.05.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Baltazar P. I. Da Silva Moura L. S. Pessoa G. T. Rodrigues R. P. S. Sanches M. P. Diniz A. N. et al. 2016: Comparative B-mode and Doppler renal ultrasonography with histopathological findings in dogs positive for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79 637-645.
2. Braga J. F. V. Alves F. R. 2016: Comparative B-mode and Doppler renal ultrasonography with histopathological findings in dogs positive for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79 637-645.
3. Beňačka J. Tvrdík E. 2013: Doppler basis (In Slovak). In Proceedings of the 9th Congress of Slovak Sonography Slovakia Piešťany 5.
4. Bude R. O. DiPietro M. A. Platt J. F. Rubin J. M. 1994: Effect of furosemide and intravenous normal saline fluid load upon the renal resistive index in nonobstructed kidneys in children. J. Urol. 151 438-41.
5. Choi H. Won S. Chung W. Lee K. Chang D. Lee H. et al. 2003: Effect of intravenous mannitol upon the resistive index in complete unilateral renal obstruction in dogs. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 17 158-62.
6. Finn-Bodner S. Hudson J. A. 1988: Abdominal vascular sonography. In Penninck G. (Ed.): The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice. Ultrasonography. Philadelphia W. B. Saunders 28 887-942.
7. Lee K. Choi M. Yoon J. Jung J. 2004: Spectral waveform analysis of major arteries in conscious dogs by Doppler ultrasonography. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound 45 166-171.
8. Mattoon J. S. Nyland T. G. 2015: Small Animal Diagnostic Ultrasound 3th edn. Missouri Elsevier 32-47 125-127 431-435 581-584.
9. Novellas R. Espada Y. de Gopegui R. R. 2007: Doppler ultrasonographic estimation of renal and ocular resistive and pulsatility indices in normal dogs and cats. Vet. Radiol. Ultrasound 48 69-73.
10. Ochoa P G. Lacasta D. Sosa I. Gascon M. Ramos J. J. Ferrer L. M. 2011: Fundamentals and Applications of Abdominal Doppler. Ultrasound Imaging - Medical Applications. Chapter 14 Minin I. V. Minin O. V. (Eds.) published by InTech under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license 342 pp.
11. Shokeir A. A Nijman R. J. el Azab M. Proovost A. P. 1997: Partial ureteral obstruction: Effect of intravenous normal saline and furosemide upon the renal resistive index. J. Urol. 157 1074-7.
12. Spaulding K. A. 1997: A review of sonographic identification of abdominal blood vessels and juxtavascular organs. Vet. Radiol. Ultrasound 38 4-23.
13. Svicero D. J. Doiche D. P. Mamprim M. J. Heckler M. C. Amorim R. M. 2013: Ultrasound evaluation of common carotid artery blood glow in the Labrador retriever BMC Veterinary Research 9195. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-61/9/195.
14. Szatmari V. Sotonyi P. Voros K. 2001: Normal duplex Doppler waveforms of major abdominal blood vessels in dogs: A review. Vet. Radiol. Ultrasound 42 93-107.
15. Taylor K. J. Burns P. N. Woodcock J. P. Wells P. N. 1985: Blood flow in deep abdominal and pelvic vessels: ultrasonic pulsed-Doppler analysis. Radiology 154 487-493.
16. Ulrich J. C. York J. P. Koff S. A. 1995: The renal vascular response to acutely elevated intrapelvic pressure: resistive index measurements in experimental urinary obstruction. J. Urol. 154 1202-1204.
17. Upchurch D. A. Ogden D. M. Baker D. G. 2015: Bilateral femoral arterial dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria immitis in a dog. Veterinary Record Case Reports 3: e000184. doi:
17. Upchurch, D. A., Ogden, D. M., Baker, D. G., 2015: Bilateral femoral arterial dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria immitis in a dog. Veterinary Record Case Reports, 3: e000184. doi: 10.1136/vetreccr-2015-000184.)| false