This study investigated the changes in: thyroid hormones, amount of subcutaneous fat, and selected indices of blood biochemistry in dairy cows in relation to the reproduction/production cycle. The blood samples were collected both ante- and post-partum every two weeks. When evaluating the mean values of the investigated indices, the major changes were recorded in dairy cows 3 to 14 days after calving. During this period, we observed a significant decrease in the mean serum levels of T3 (P < 0.05), T4 (P < 0.01), and triglycerides (P < 0.01). An opposite trend was observed with a significant increase after calving in the: mean serum levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (P < 0.05), urea (P < 0.01), and mean AST activities (P < 0.05). A significant increase over the normal range was recorded in the average levels of non-esterified fatty acids (P < 0.01) and total bilirubin (P < 0.01). From the next sampling (28 days after calving) onwards we recorded a significant increase in the blood serum levels of cholesterol (P < 0.01), total lipids (P < 0.01), total protein (P < 0.01), as well as a significant decrease in the insulin levels (P < 0.05) and a reduced layer of subcutaneous fat (P < 0.01). The blood serum iodine concentration showed only slight significant changes (P < 0.05) during the observation. Blood serum levels of glucose did not show any significant changes during the whole observation period. Within the whole observation period we found a negative correlation between T3 levels and the layer of subcutaneous fat (r = −0.2606; P < 0.05). This correlation was much more marked in cows 3 to 14 days after calving (r = −0.5077; P < 0.05), which may indicate a possible relationships between the thyroid status, body condition, and post partum negative energy balance.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Aceves C. Ruiz A. Romero C. Valverde C. 1985: Homeorhesis during early lactation. Euthyroid sick-like syndrome in lactating cows. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.) 110 505—509.
2. Bauman D. E. Currie W. B. 1980: Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation — A review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. J. Dairy Sci. 63 1514—1518.
3. Capuco A. V. Wood D. L. Elsasser T. H. Kahl S. Erdman R. A. Van Tasel C. P. et al. 2001: Effect of somatotropin on thyroid hormones and cytokines in lactating dairy cows during ad libitum and restricted feed intake. J. Dairy Sci. 84 2430—2439.
4. Cassar-Malek I. Kahl S. Jurie C. Picard C. 2001: Influence of feeding level during postweaning growth on circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones and extrathyroidal 5’-deiodination in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 79 2679—2687.
5. Celeska I. Ulčar I. Dovenski T. Mitrov D. Džadžovski I. Kuzmanovska S. 2011: Correlation between thyroid status and some biochemical parameters of dairy cows in different stages of lactation. Veterinarska Stanica 42 (Supplement 1) 173.
6. De Koster J. Hostens M. Van Eetvelde M. Hermans K. Moerman S. Bogaert H. et al. 2015: Insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows across a range of body condition scores. J. Dairy Sci. 98 4580—4592.
7. Djokovič R. Šamanc H. Jovanovič M. Nikolič Z. 2007: Blood concentrations of thyroid hormones and lipids and content of lipids in the liver in dairy cows in transitional period. Acta Vet. Brno 76 525—532.
8. Drackley J. K 1999: ADSA Foundation Scholar Award Biology of dairy cows during the transition period: the final frontier ? J. Dairy Sci. 82 2259—2273.
9. Drackley J. K. Dann H. M. Douglas G. N. Janovick Guretzky N. A. Litherland N. B. Underwood J. P. et al. 2005: Physiological and pathological adaptations in dairy cows that may increase susceptibility to periparturient diseases and disorders. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 4 323—344.
10. Durdevič D. Stojič V. Jovanovič M. J. Radakovič N. 1980: Concentration of thyroxine triiodothyronine and cortisol in the blood serum of ketotic cows. Acta Vet. Beograd 30 7—12.
11. Ellenberger M. A. Johnson D. E. Carstens G. E. Hossner K. L. Holland M. D Nett T. M. et al. 1989: Endocrine and metabolic changes during altered growth rates in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 67 1446—1454.
12. Eppinga M. Suriyasathaporn W. Kulcsar M. Huszenica G. Y. Wensing T. Dieleman S. J. 1999: Thyroxin and triiodothyronine in association with milk yield βOH-butyrate and non-esterified fatty acid during the peak of lactation. Abstract. J. Dairy Sci. 82 50.
13. Gross J. J. Kessler E. C. Albrecht C. H. Brukmaier R. M. 2015: Response of the cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121956.
14. Gross J. Van Dorland H. A. Bruckmaier R. M. Schwarz F. J. 2011: Performance and metabolic profile of dairy cows during a lactational and deliberately induced negative energy balance by feed restriction with subsequent realimentation. J. Dairy Sci. 94 1820—1830.
15. Grummer R. R. 1995: Impact of changes in organic nutrient metabolism on feeding the transition dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 73 2820—2833.
16. Grummer R. R. 1993: Etiology of lipid-related metabolic disorders in periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76 3882—3896.
17. Gvozdić D. Stojić V. Šamanc H. Dorić G. Vujanac I. 2006: Thyroid gland status and body condition score (BCS) in peripartal dairy cows. Slov. Vet. Res. Suppl. 43 98—99.
18. Hayden I. M. Williams J. E. Collier J. J. 1993: Plasma growth hormone insulin-like growth factor insulin and thyroid hormone association with body protein and fat accretion in steers undergoing compensatory gain after dietary energy restriction. J. Anim. Sci. 71 3327—3338.
19. Hayrili A. 2006: The role of oxygenous insulin in the complex of hepatic lipidosis and ketosis associated with insulin resistance phenomenon in post partum dairy cows. Vet. Res. Commun. 30 749—774.
20. Hersom M. J. Wettman R. P. Krehbiel C. R. Horn G. W. Keisler D. H. 1993: Blood metabolites and hormones during winter grazing: III. Blood metabolites and hormones during feedlot finishing. J. Anim. Sci. 82 2059—2068.
21. Huszenica G. Y. Kulcsar M. Rudas P. 2002: Clinical endocrinology of thyroid gland function in ruminants: A review of literature. Vet. Med. 47 191—202.
22. Huszenica G. Y. Kulcsar M. Nikolič J. A. Schmidt J. Korodi P. Katai L. et al. 2001: Plasma leptin concentration and its interrelation with some blood metabolites metabolic hormones and the resumption of cyclic ovarian function in post partum dairy cows supplemented with monensin or inert fat in feed. In Diskin M. G. (Ed.): Fertility in the High-producing Dairy Cow. British Society of Animal Science. Edinburgh Occasional Publications 2 405—409.
23. Janam J. Rudas P. Bartha T. Bozó S. Gábor G. Y. 1995: Effect of severe energy restriction and refeeding on thyroid hormones in bulls. Acta Vet. Hungarica 43 173—177.
24. Jendrassik L. Grof P. 1938: Vereinfachte photometrische Methoden zur Bestimmung des Blutbilirubins. Biochem. Z. 297 81—89.
25. Jovanović M. Stojić V. Djurdević. D. Sinadinović J. 1988: Puerperal changes of thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum levels in dairy cows. In Book of Abstracts of the XIXth Annual Meeting of ESNA 111.
26. Kapp P. Pethes G. Zsíros M. Schuster Z. 1978: Hypothyreogenic fatty liver syndrome in high-yielding dairy cows (In Hungarian). Magyar Állat. Lapja 10 653—654.
27. Kapp P. Pethes G. Zsíros M. Schuster Z. 1979: Contribution to pathogenesis of fatty liver syndrome in high-yielding dairy cows (In Hungarian). Magyar Állat. Lapja 34 458—469.
28. 28. Kesler D. J. Johnson H. D. Garverick H. A. 1981:Post partum concentrations of thyroxin in plasma of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 64 1618—1620.
29. Khatri P. Bhutto B. 2014: Expression of androgen receptors at mRNA level in bovine placentomes during 50−150 days of pregnancy. Pak. J. Agri. Sci. 51 303—307.
30. Kirovski D. Sladojević Ž. Stojić V. Vujanac I. Lazarević I. Radovanović A. et al. 2012: Effect of peri partum dietary energy supplementation on thyroid hormones insulin-like growth factor-I and its binding proteins in early lactation dairy cows. Acta Vet. (Beograd) 62 403—419.
31. Kirovski D. Šamanc H. Stojić V. Vujanać M. Jovanović M. Prodanović R. 2011: The use of thyroid status of mid dry dairy cows for the prediction of postpartal fatty liver. Veterinarska Stanica 42 (Supplement 1) 57.
32. Kostopanagiotou G. Kalimeris K. Mourouzis I. Costopanagiotou C. Arkadopoulos N. Panagopoulos D. et al. 2009: Thyroid hormones alterations during acute liver failure: possible underlying mechanisms and consequences. Endocrine 36 198—204.
33. Kunz P. L. Blum J. W. 1985: Relationships between energy balances and blood levels of hormones and metabolites in dairy cows during late pregnancy and early lactation. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 54 239—248.
34. Leyva-Ocariz H. Lucciola K. Puzzar S. 1997: Serum thyroid hormone concentrations during growth and puberty in Carora dairy heifers of Venezuela. Theriogenology 48 19—31.
35. McGuire M. A. Beede D. K. Collier R. J. Buonomo F. C. De Lorenzo M. A. Wilcox C. J. 1991: Effects of acute thermal stress and amount of feed intake on concentrations of somatotropin insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II and thyroid hormones in plasma of lactating Holstein cows. J. Anim. Sci. 69 2050—2056.
36. Nikolič J. A. Šamanc H. Begovic J. Damjanovic Z. Dokovic R. Kostic G. et al. 1997: Low peripheral serum thyroid hormone status independently affects the hormone profiles of healthy and ketotic cows during the first post partum. Acta Vet. (Beograd) 47 3—14.
37. Nixon D. A. Akasha M. A. Anderson R. R. 1988: Free and total thyroid hormones in serum of Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 71 1152—1160.
38. Oler A. Glovinska B. 2013: Blood chemistry thyroid hormones and insulin serum content in bulls fed a ration limited in energy. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 37 194—199.
39. Overton T. R. Waldron M. R. 2004: Nutritional management of transition dairy cows: Strategies to optimize metabolic health. J. Dairy Sci. 87 E105—E119.
40. Pethes G. Y. Bokori J. Rudas P. Frenyó V. L. Fekete S. 1985: Thyroxine triiodothyronine reverse-triiodothyronine and other physiological characteristics of periparturient cows fed restricted energy. J. Dairy Sci. 68 1148—1154.
41. Prodanovič R. Kirovski D. Jakič-Dimič D. Vujanac I. Kureljušič B. 2010: Body conditions and indicators of energy status in cows in late pregnancy and early lactation stage. Veterinarski Glasnik 63 43—52.
42. Ronge H. Blum J. Clement C. Jans F. Leuenberger H. Binder H. 1988: SomatomedinC in dairy cows related to energy and protein supply and to milk production. Anim. Prod. 47 165—183.
43. Seppel T. Kosel A. Schlaghecke R. 1997: Bioelectric impedance assessment of body composition in thyroid disease. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 136 493—498.
44. Sinka K. Illek J. Kumprechtová D. Novák P. 2008: Changes in T3 and T4 plasma concentrations in dairy cows during lactation. Jubilee World Buiatrics Congress July 6—11 Budapest Hungary 283.
45. Staufenbiel R. 1997: Condition assessment of dairy cows using the ultrasound backfat thickness measurement (In German). Pract. Veterinary Coll. Vet. 27 8792.
46. Stengärde L. Traven M. Emanuelson U. Holtenius K. Hultgren J. Niskanen R. 2008: Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis. Acta Vet. Scand. 50 31.
47. Stojić V. Gvozdić D. Kirovski D. Nikolić J. Huszenica G. Y. Šamanc H. et al. 2001: Serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations prior to and after delivery in primiparous Holstein cows. Acta Vet. Beograd 51 3—8.
48. Tiirats T. 1997: Thyroxine triiodothyronine concentrations in blood plasma in relation to lactational stage milk yield energy and dietary protein intake in Estonian dairy cows. Acta Vet. Scand. 38 339—348.
49. Tušl J. 1983: Photometrical determination of traces of iodine in food based on catalytic reaction NO-2/SCN (In Czech). Chemické listy (Chemical letters) 7 513—515.
50. Vargová M. Petrovič V. Konvičná J. Kadaši M. Zaleha P. Kováč G. 2015: Hormonal profile and body condition scoring in dairy cows during pre partum and post partum periods. Acta Vet. Brno 28 141—151.
51. Verma A. Jayaraman M. Kumar H. K. V. S. Modi K. D. 2008: Hypothyroidism and obesity. Cause or effect ? Saudi Med. J. 29 1135—1138.
52. Weiss R. Dziura J. Burgert T. S. Tamborlane W. V. Taksali S. E. Yeckel S. 2004: Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N. Engl. J. Med. 350 2362—2374.
53. Yelich J. V. Wetteman R. P. Dolewal H. G. Lusby K. S. Bishop D. K. Spicer L. J. 1995: Effects of growth rate on carcass composition and lipid partitioning at puberty and growth hormone insulin-like factor I insulin and metabolites before puberty in beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 73 2390—405.