Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Captured Free-Living, Free-Range and Intensively Reared Birds in Southwest Nigeria

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Abstract

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute infectious viral disease causing severe economic losses in poultry production. In Nigeria, there has only been monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to other bird species. For this study, blood samples were collected from 184 apparently healthy, unvaccinated birds which comprised of 61 captured free-living pigeons, 60 free range indigenous chickens and 63 intensively reared Japanese quails. Sera from these birds were screened for IB virus antibodies (IBV) using a commercial ELISA kit. The birds were from Oyo and Osun States, in southwest Nigeria. Overall, 63 (34.2 %) sera were positive for IBV with 3.3 % (2/61), 95.0 % (57/60) and 6.3 % (4/63) from pigeons, indigenous chickens and Japanese quails, respectively. These findings suggest that they were subclinically infected with either field or vaccine virus and could thus serve as possible reservoirs of this virus to domestic poultry. Thus, there is need for continuous surveillance of the disease in different bird species and their possible role in the spread of IBV in Nigeria.

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