The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacilli and Flaxseed on the Health of Weaned Piglets and Metabolism of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs)

Abstract

This study investigated for 14 days post-weaning, the influence of dietary supplementation of synbiotics in the form of probiotic cheeses containing cultures of L. plantarum and L. fermentum and crushed flaxseed (source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids — PUFAs and fibre) on 36 commercial piglets originating from an infected herd (Coronavirus and E. coli) during the critical period of weaning. We focused on the health and metabolism of PUFAs in this critical period of a piglet’s life. The dietary supplementation positively affected: the overall health state of weaners, reduced diarrhoea by 29 % by 14 days post-weaning and significantly increased the counts of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and the production of volatile fatty acids. The PUFA concentrations in the m. biceps femoris of the piglets were analysed by gas chromatography. High levels of ω-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in flaxseed increased significantly the level of ALA, eicosapentaenic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenic acid (DHA) in the pig muscles on days 7 and 14 post-weaning. The levels of ω-6 linolenic acid (LA) were less affected by the diet, but were increased on day 14 post-weaning, while the conversion products of LA, and arachidonic acid (AA), were decreased on days 7 and 14. The increased level of dietary ALA favoured the activity of Δ-6-desaturase for the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, at the expense of AA synthesis from LA. The ability of synbiotics to incorporate high levels of DHA in the pig muscles appear prospective for improving the nutritional properties of pork and reducing the occurrence of civilization diseases in consumers of this product of animal origin.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Amrita, A. K., Anvita, A. K., Sadhana, R. J., 2015: Maternal omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients modulate fetal lipid metabolism. Prostag. Leukotr. Ess., 98, 49—55.

  • 2. Bečková, R., Václavková, E., 2010: The effect of linseed diet on carcass value traits and fatty acid composition in muscle and fat tissue of fattening pigs. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 55, 313—320.

  • 3. Belenguer, A., Duncan, S. F., Calder, A. G., Holtrop, G., Louis, P., Lobley, G. E., Flint, H. J., 2006: Two routes of metabolic cross-feeding between Bifidobacterium adolescentis and butyrate producing anaerobes from the human gut. Appl. Environ. Microb., 72, 3593—3599.

  • 4. Bomba, A., Jonecová, Z., Koščová, J., Nemcová, R., Gancarčíková, S., Mudroňová, D. et al., 2006: The improvement of probiotics efficacy by synergistically acting components of natural origin. Biologia, Bratislava, 61, 729—734.

  • 5. Borovská, D., Nemcová, R., Gancarčíková, S., Koščová, J., 2013: The synbiotic effect of lactobacilli and flaxseed on selected intestinal microflora and organic acid levels in weaned piglets. Microbiology, 2, 82—86.

  • 6. Carlson, L. A., Hoegsted, B., Oroe, L., 1963: Effect of atromid on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in subjects with hyperlipoproteinemia (a preliminary report). J. Atherocer. Res., 3, 467—474.

  • 7. Enser, M., Richardson, R. I., Wood, J. D., Gill, B. P., Sheard, P. R., 2000: Feeding linseed to increase the n-3 PUFA of pork: fatty acid composition of muscle, adipose tissue, liver and sausages. Meat Sci., 55, 201—212.

  • 8. Folch, J., Lees, M., Sloane Stanley, G. H., 1957: A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem., 226, 497—509.

  • 9. Gomes, B. C., Rodriguez, M. R., Winkelströter, L. K., Nomizo, A., De Martinis, E. C., 2012: In vitro evaluation of the probiotic potential of bacteriocin producer Lactobacillus sakei. J. Food Protect, 75, 1083—1089.

  • 10. Grofová, Z., 2010: Fatty acids (In Czech). Medicina pro praxi (Medicine for Practice), 7, 388—390.

  • 11. Guillevic, M., Kouba, M., Mourot, J., 2009: Effect of a linseed diet or a sunflower diet on performances, fatty acid composition, lipogenic enzyme activities and stearoyl-CoA-desaturase activity in the pig. Livestock Science, 124, 288—294.

  • 12. Gunstone, F. D., 2012: Fatty Acids and Lipid Chemistry. Springer London, 268 pp.

  • 13. Haak, L., De Smeet, A., Fremaut, D., Van Walleghem, K., Raes, K., 2008: Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of pork influence by duration and time of dietary linseed or fish oil supplementation. J. Anim. Sci., 86, 1418—1425.

  • 14. Ji, J., Hu, S. L., Ciu, Z. W., Li, W. F., 2013: Probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens mediate M1 macrophage polarization in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Archives of Microbiology, 195, 349—356.

  • 15. Kašteľ, R., Tučková, M., Vaško, L., Pistl, J., Revajová, V., Eliáš, D. et al., 2003: The effect of oil with elevated content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on some metabolic and immunological parameters in germ-free and conventional piglets. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 48, 233—23.

  • 16. Kašteľ, R., Bomba, A., Vaško, L., Trebunová, A., Mach, P., 2007: The effect of probiotics potentiated with polyunsaturated fatty acid on the digestive tract of germ-free piglets. Vet. Med. Czech, 52, 63—68.

  • 17. Kouba, M., Benatmane, F., Blochet, J. E., Mourot, J., 2008: Effect of a linseed diet on lipid oxidation fatty acid composition of muscle, perirenal fat and raw and cooked rabbit meat. Meat Sci., 80, 829—834.

  • 18. Kouba, M., Mourot, J., 2011: A review of nutritional effects on fat composition of animal products with special emphasis on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biochemie, 93, 13—17.

  • 19. Kubašová, I., Mudroňová, D., 2014: The influence of probiotic Lactobacilli and flaxseed on the immune response of weaned piglets experimentally infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Folia Veterinaria, 58, 122—126.

  • 20. Lee, H. S, Villarreal, A. B., Biessy, B., Duarte-Salles, T., Sly, P. D., Ramakrishnan, U. et al., 2014: Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acid during pregnancy modulates DNA methylation at IGF2/H19 imprinted genes and growth of infants. Physiol. Genomics, 46, 851—857.

  • 21. Li, Q., Brendemuhl, J. H., Jeong, K. C., Badinga, L., 2014: Effects of dietary omega-polyunsaturated fatty acids on growth and immune response of weaning pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 56, 1—7.

  • 22. Nakamura, M. T. Cheon, Y., Li, Y., Nara, T. Y., 2004: Mechanisms of regulation of gene expression by fatty acids. Lipids, 39, 1077—1083.

  • 23. Nemcová, R., Lauková, A., Gancarčíková, S., Kašteľ, R., 1997: In vitro studies of porcine lactobacilli for possible probiotic use. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl., 110, 413—417.

  • 24. Nemcová, R., Guba, P., Gancarčíková, S., Bomba, A., Lauková, A., 2003: Study of probiotic properties of lactobacilli in poultry (In Slovak). Agriculture, 49, 75—80.

  • 25. Nemcová, R., Borovská, D., Koščová, J., Gancarčíková, S., Mudroňová, D., Buleca, V., Pistl, J., 2012: The effect of supplementation of flax-seed oil on interaction of Lactobacillus plantarum — Biocenol™ LP96 and Escherichia coli O8:K88ab:H9 in the gut of germ-free piglets. Res. Vet. Sci., 93, 39—41.

  • 26. Perini, J. A. L., Stevanato, F. B., Visentainer, J. E. L., Sargi, S. C., Oliveira, M. M., Souza, N. E. et al., 2011: Incorporation of n-3 fatty acids by the liver of mice fed linseed oil as a function of feeding duration. Braz. Arch. Biol. Techn., 54, 307—313.

  • 27. Serhan, C. N., Chiang, N., Van Dyke, T. E., 2008: Resolving inflammation: dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators. Nat. Rev. Immunol., 8, 349—361.

  • 28. Shapira, N., Weil, P., Loewenbach, R., 2008: Egg fortification with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): nutritional benefits versus high n-6 PUFA western diets and consumer acceptance. Isr. Med. Assoc. J., 10, 262—265.

  • 29. Shin, S. S., Dixon, C. E., 2011: Oral fish oil restores striatal dopamine release after traumatic brain injury. Neurosci. Lett., 496, 168—171.

  • 30. Schindler, M., Pendzialek, M., Navarrette Santos, A., Plösch, T., Seyring, S., Gürke, J. et al., 2014: Maternal diabetes leads to unphysiological high lipid accumulation in rabbit preim-plantation embryos. Endocrinology, 155, 1498—1509.

  • 31. Sopková, D., Hertelyová, Z., Andrejčáková, Z., Vlčková, R., Gancarčíková, S., Petrilla, V. et al., 2017: The application of probiotics and flaxseed promotes metabolism of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in pigs. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 45, 93—98.

  • 32. Tang, X., Li, Z. J., Xu, J., Xue, Y., Li, J. Z., Wang, J. F. et al., 2012: Short term effects of different omega-3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet. Lipids in Health and Disease, 11, 70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-11-70.

  • 33. Tanghe, S., Missotten, J., Raes, K., Vangeyte, J., De Smet, S., 2014: Diverse effects of linseed oil and fish oil in diets for sows on reproductive performance and pre-weaning growth of piglets. Livest. Prod. Sci., 164, 109—118.

  • 34. Tvrzická, E., Vecka, M., Staňková, B., Žák, A., 2002: Analysis of fatty acids in plasma lipoproteins by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection: quantitative aspects. Anal. Chim. Acta, 465, 337—350.

  • 35. Vaisey-Genser, M., Morris, D. H., 2003: Introduction, history of the cultivation and uses of flaxseed. In Muir, A. D., Westcott, N. D. (Eds.): Flax, the Genus Linum. Taylor and Francis, London, 1—21.

  • 36. Wachira, A. M., Sinclair, L. A., Wilkinson, R. G., Ener, M., Wood, J. D., Fisher, A. V., 2002: Effects of dietary fat source and breed on the carcass composition, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid content of sheep meat and adipose tissue. Br. J. Nutr., 88, 697—709.

  • 37. Wang, D. F., Zhou, L. L., Zhou, H. L., Hou, G. Y., Zhou, X., Li, W., 2016: Effects of piper sarmentosum extract on the growth performance, antioxidant capability and immune response in weaned piglets. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., April 4, 1—8.

  • 38. Weaver, K. L., Ivester, P., Seeds, M., Case, L. D., Arm, J. P., Chilton, F. H., 2009: Effect of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory gene expression in healthy humans. J. Biol. Chem., 284, 5400—15407.

  • 39. Wong, J. M., Jenkins, D. J., 2007: Carbohydrate digestibility and metabolic effects. J. Nutr., 137, 2539—2546.

  • 40. Woods, V. B., Fearon, A. M., 2009: Dietary sources of unsaturated fatty acids for animals and their transfer into meat, milk and eggs. Livest. Prod. Sci., 126, 1—20.

  • 41. Zelenka, J., Jarošová, A., Schneiderová, D., 2008: Influence of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on sensory characteristics of chicken meat. Czech. J. Sci., 53, 299—305.

  • 42. Zhao, Y., Jonshi-Barve, S., Barve, S., Chen, L. H., 2004: Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression by preventing NF-kappaB activation. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 23, 71—78.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search