The majority of all diseases in dairy cows occur during the period from three weeks before parturition to three weeks after parturition, in the periparturient or transitional period. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of selected parameters of: the hormonal profiles, the body condition score (BCS) and their interrelationships. The study was carried out on 15 dairy cows of the Slovak Pied Cattle, from three weeks before to nine weeks after parturition, which were divided into six groups. The concentrations of leptin during ante partum increased from 23.08 ± 10.58 ng.ml−1 to 26.80 ± 11.47 ng.ml−1, then gradually decreased (P > 0.05), and conversely, the concentrations of ghrelin before parturition were found to be decreasing and during the postpartal period, the concentrations increased, with the highest value of 35.94 ± 16.85 pg.ml−1. In the case of insulin, we found the opposite tendency of ghrelin. We observed significantly higher values of BCS in dry cows than in cows after parturition (P < 0.001). Comparing the BCS and the parameter of the hormonal profiles, we found both positive and negative correlations: leptin and ghrelin (r = −0.235, P < 0.05), and BCS and insulin (r = 0.232, P < 0.05), and BCS and leptin (r = 0.360, P < 0.001). The interrelationships between the hormones and the body condition score, provided evidence that the variations in concentrations of leptin, ghrelin and insulin were related to variations in the BCS.
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