Development of stem cracks in young hybrid aspen plantations

Open access


Cracks expose wood to fungal infections that significantly affects wood quality, while rapid wound occlusion decreases probability of infections. Assessment of scars was done at four grade scale in three adjacent hybrid aspen trials at the age of 8-10 years in central part of Latvia three years after bark crack occurrence. Occluded wounds were found for 95% of damaged trees, regardless of tree age. Among trees that had cracks wider than 1 cm, 42% had uniformly healed bark, but 7% still had open wounds. Wound development was significantly affected by crack width and length (both p < 0.001), but had no clear relation with tree DBH (diameter at breast height) and relative DBH increment (both p > 0.05). At clonal mean level, scar grade was significantly affected by grade of crack three years earlier and clone (both p < 0.001), but mean DBH of clone had no relation (p > 0.05) to proportion of trees evaluated by any of the scar grades. The results suggest that three years after the bark crack formation most of them had successfully occluded and selection of clones with better diameter growth has no influence on development of cracks.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Arhipova N. Jansons Ā. Zaluma A. Gaitnieks T. Vasaitis R. 2015. Bark stripping of Pinus contorta caused by moose and deer: wounding patterns discoloration of wood and associated fungi. - Canadian Journal of Forest Research 45(10) 1434-1438.

  • Bier J.E. 1965. Some inoculum factors in pathogenicity studies of Hypoxylon pruinatum (Klotzsche) Cke. on Populus tremuloides Michx. - Canadian Journal of Botany 43(8) 877-883.

  • Bucciarelli B. Ostry M.E. Fulcher R.G. Anderson N.A. Vance C.P. 1999. Histochemical and microspectrophotometric analyses of early wound responses of resistant and susceptible Populus tremuloides inoculated with Entoleuca mammata (= Hypoxylon mammatum). - Canadian Journal of Botany 77(4) 548-555.

  • Burneviča N. Jansons Ā. Zaļuma A. Kļaviņa D. Jansons J. Gaitnieks T. 2016. Fungi inhabiting bark stripping wounds made by large game on stems of Picea abies (L.) Karst. in Latvia. - Baltic Forestry 22(1) 2-7.

  • Chakravarty P. Hiratsuka Y. 1992. Antagonism of two decay fungi Peniophora polygonia and Phellinus tremulae associated with Populus tremuloides. - European Journal of Plant Pathology 22 354-361.

  • Chen F. Liu C.J. Tschaplinski T.J. Zhao N. 2009. Genomics of secondary metabolism in Populus: interactions with biotic and abiotic environments. - Critical Reviews in Plant Science 28(5) 375-392.

  • Christersson L. 2006. Biomass production of intensively grown poplars in the southernmost part of Sweden: Observations of characters traits and growth potential. - Biomass and Bioenergy 30(6) 497-508.

  • Johansson T. 2013. Discolored stems of 12-63-yearold European aspen (Populus tremula L.). SLU Uppsala. 33 pp.

  • Laflamme G. 1979. Discoloured wood of aspen caused by increment boring. - European Journal of Forest Pathology 9(1) 15-18.

  • Litzow M. Pellett H. 1983. Materials for potential use in sunscald prevention. - Journal of Arboriculture 9(2) 35-38.

  • Merdikes M. 2015. Growth and aboveground biomass of hybrid aspen clones triploid aspen and silver birch in Agali comparison experiment. (Hübriidhaava kloonide triploidse haava ja arukase kasvukäik ja maapealne biomass Agali võrdluskatses). MSc Thesis. Tartu 57 pp. (In Estonian).

  • Neely D. 1979. Tree wounds and wound closure. - Journal of Arboriculture 5(6) 135-140.

  • Nicolai V. 1986. The bark of trees: thermal properties microclimate and fauna. - Oecologia 69(1) 148-160.

  • Orians C.M. 2000. The effects of hybridization in plants on secondary chemistry: implications for the ecology and evolution of plant-herbivore interactions. - American Journal of Botany 87(12) 1749-1756.

  • Pallardy S.G. 2008. Physiology of Woody Plants (Third Edition). San Diego Academic Press. 454 pp.

  • R Core Team. 2013. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing Vienna Austria. [WWW document]. - URL [Accessed 7 September 2017].

  • Sheppard J. Morhart C. Spiecker H. 2016. Bark surface temperature measurements on the boles of wild cherry (Prunus avium) grown within an agroforestry system. - Silva Fennica 50(3) article id 1313 19 pp.

  • Shigo A.L. 1984. Compartmentalization: a conceptual framework for understanding how trees grow and defend themselves. - Annual Review of Phytopathology 22(1) 189-214.

  • Shigo A.L. Shortle W. Garrett P. 1977. Compartmentalization of discolored and decayed wood associated with injection-type wounds in hybrid poplar. - Journal of Arboriculture 3(6) 114-118.

  • Smilga J. Zeps M. Sisenis L. Kalnins J. Adamovics A. Donis J. 2015. Profi tability of hybrid aspen breeding in Latvia. - Agronomy Research 13(2) 430-435.

  • Soe K. 1959. Anatomical studies of bark regeneration following scoring. - Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 40(3) 260-267.

  • Tullus A. Lukason O. Vares A. Padari A. Lutter R. Tullus T. Karoles K. Tullus H. 2012a. Economics of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) plantations on abandoned agricultural lands in Estonia. - Baltic Forestry 18(2) 288-298.

  • Tullus A. Rytter L. Tullus T. Weih M. Tullus H. 2012b. Short-rotation forestry with hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) in Northern Europe. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 27(1) 10-29.

  • Tullus A. Tullus H. Vares A. Kanal A. 2007. Early growth of hybrid aspen (Populus × wettsteinii Hämet-Ahti) plantations on former agricultural lands in Estonia. - Forest Ecology and Management 245(1) 118-129.

  • Ullah I. 2012. Discoloration in poplar tree and production of sprouts after harvest. SLU Uppsala. 27 pp.

  • Vasaitis R. Bakys R. Vasiliauskas A. 2012. Discoloration and associated fungi in stems of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) following logging damage. - Forest Pathology 42(5) 387-392.

  • Vasiliauskas R. 1998. Patterns of wounding and decay in stems of Quercus robur due to bark peeling. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 13(1-4) 437-441.

  • Vasiliauskas R. Stenlid J. 1998. Discoloration following bark stripping wounds on Fraxinus excelsior. - European Journal of Forest Pathology 28(6) 383-390.

  • Wagner K. Kuhns M.R. 2011. Sunscald injury or southwest injury on deciduous trees. Utah State University. 4 pp.

  • Zeps M. Senhofa S. Zadina M. Neimane U. Jansons A. 2016. Stem damages caused by heart rot and large poplar borer on hybrid and European aspen in Kalsnava Latvia. - Baltic Forestry (accepted).

  • Zeps M. Sisenis L. Luguza S. Purins M. Dzerina B. Kalnins J. 2015. Formation of height increment of hybrid aspen in Latvia. - Agronomy Research 13(2) 436-441.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 1.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.331
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.743

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 198 99 2
PDF Downloads 120 57 2