Species diversity of fungi on damaged branches and leaves of ashes (Fraxinus spp.) in different types of stands in Slovakia

Katarína Pastirčáková 1 , Helena Ivanová 1  and Martin Pastirčák 2
  • 1 Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Forest Ecology, Branch for Woody Plant Biology, SK – 949 01, Nitra
  • 2 National Agricultural and Food Centre, Research Institute of Plant Production, SK – 921 68, Piešťany


The diversity of fungi on branches and leaves of ashes (Fraxinus angustifolia, F. excelsior, F. ornus) in Slovakia was studied. Symptomatic material collected in Slovakia during the period of 2013 to 2017 and herbarium specimens previously collected were examined. In total, 30 fungal taxa (15 Deuteromycetes, 14 Ascomycetes and one Basidiomycetes) were recorded. Twenty-three of them have never been recorded on ashes in the country. The most frequently occurring fungi were Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea) that causes necrosis of shoots and branches, and Phyllactinia fraxini, a foliar pathogen that causes powdery mildew disease. Fungal diversity on ashes growing in different types of stands was compared. Species richness was the greatest in seed orchards (20 fungal taxa) compared to private gardens, which contained the lowest (two fungal taxa). Species diversity in forest stands comprised 18 fungal taxa and the urban greenery was represented by 10 fungal taxa. Nine fungal taxa were recorded in tree alley along the road. The widest fungal species spectrum was recorded on F. excelsior.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Aa, H. A. van der, Vanev, S., 2002: A revision of the species described in Phyllosticta. Utrecht, CBS, 510 p.

  • Adamčíková, K., Kádasi-Horáková, M., Jankovský, L., Havrdová, L., 2015: Identification of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, the causal agent of ash dieback in Slovakia. Biologia, 70:559–564.

  • Alves, A., Linaldeddu, B. T., Deidda, A., Scanu, B., Phillips, A. J. L., 2014: The complex of Diplodia species associated with Fraxinus and some other woody hosts in Italy and Portugal. Fungal Diversity, 67:143–156.

  • Anonymous, 2015: Súhrnné informácie o stave lesov SR 2006–2014. Zvolen, NLC, 130 p.

  • Arx, J. A., Müller, E., 1954: Die Gattungen der amerosporen Pyrenomycetes. Beiträge zur Kryptogamenflora der Schweiz, 11:1–454.

  • Bakys, R., Vasaitis, R., Barklund, P., Thomsen, I. M., Stenlid, J., 2009: Occurrence and pathogenicity of fungi in necrotic and non-symptomatic shoots of declining common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in Sweden. European Journal of Forest Research, 128:51–60.

  • Clark, J., Webber, J., 2017: The ash resource and the response to ash dieback in Great Britain. In: Vasaitis, R., Enderle, R. (eds.): Dieback of European ash (Fraxinus spp.): consequences and guidelines for sustainable management. Uppsala, SLU Service/Repro, p. 228–237.

  • Cleary, M. R., Arhipova, N., Gaitnieks, T., Stenlid, J., Vasaitis, R., 2013: Natural infection of Fraxinus excelsior seeds by Chalara fraxinea. Forest Pathology, 43:83–85.

  • Dennis, R. W. G., 1978: British ascomycetes. Lehre, J. Cramer, 456 p.

  • Drenkhan, R., Hanso, M., 2010: New host species for Chalara fraxinea. New Disease Reports, 22:16.

  • Ellis, M. B., Ellis, J. P., 1985: Microfungi on land plants. An identification handbook. London & Sydney, Croom Helm, 818 p.

  • Gašparcová, T., Gáper, J., Gáperová, S., 2017: Väzba lesklokôroviek na druhy drevín na Slovensku. In: Sitková, Z., Pavlenda, P. (eds.): Dlhodobý ekologický výskum a monitoring lesov: súčasné poznatky a výzvy do budúcnosti. Zvolen, NLC, p. 49–53.

  • Griffith, G. S., Boddy, L., 1988: Fungal communities in attached ash (Fraxinus excelsior) twigs. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 91:599–606.

  • Gross, A., Han, J. G., 2015: Hymenoscyphus fraxineus and two new Hymenoscyphus species identified in Korea. Mycological Progress, 14:1–13.

  • Hantsch, L., Bien, S., Radatz, S., Braun, U., Auge, H., Bruelheide, H., 2014: Tree diversity and the role of non-host neighbour tree species in reducing fungal pathogen infestation. Journal of Ecology, 102:1673–1687.

  • Heluta, V. P., Takamatsu, S., Siahaan, S. A. S., 2017: Erysiphe salmonii (Erysiphales, Ascomycota), another East Asian powdery mildew fungus introduced to Ukraine. Ukrainskyj Botaničnyj Žurnal, 74:212–219.

  • Jacobs, K., Danielson, D., 2002: Variation in field susceptibility of native and exotic ash species to anthracnose. Journal of Arboriculture, 28:35–40.

  • Juhásová, G., Ivanová, H., Bernadovičová, S., Kobza, M., Adamčíková, K., 2003: The most serious fungal pathogens on woody plants in urban greenery evaluated on an example – Pezinok. Folia Oecologica, 30:239–244.

  • Juhásová, G., Adamčíková, K., Bernadovičová, S., Ivanová, H., Kobza, M., 2004: Results of phytopathological and mycological survey of park woody plants in Institute of Social Welfare in Klasov. Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, 7:110–113.

  • Kádasi-Horáková, M., Adamčíková, K., Pastirčáková, K., Longauerová, V., Maľová, M., 2017: Natural infection of Fraxinus angustifolia by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in Slovakia. Baltic Forestry, 23:52–55.

  • Keesing, F., Holt, R. D., Ostfeld, R. S., 2006: Effects of species diversity on disease risk. Ecology Letters, 9:485–498.

  • Kiffer, E., Morelet, M., 2000: The Deuteromycetes – mitosporic fungi: classification and generic keys. Enfield, Science Publishers, 273 p.

  • Kirisits, T., Schwanda, K., 2015: First definite report of natural infection of Fraxinus ornus by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Forest Pathology, 45:430–432.

  • Kowalski, T., Czekaj, A., 2010: Symptomy chorobowe i grzyby na zamierających jesionach (Fraxinus excelsior L.) w drzewostanach Nadleśnictwa Staszów. Leśne Prace Badawcze, 71:357–368.

  • Kowalski, T., Łukomska, A., 2005: Badania nad zamieraniem jesionu (Fraxinus excelsior L.) w drzewostanach Nadleśnictwa Włoszczowa. Acta Agrobotanica, 58:429–440.

  • Kowalski, T., Kraj, W., Bednarz, B., 2016: Fungi on stems and twigs in initial and advanced stages of dieback of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in Poland. European Journal of Forest Research, 135:565–579.

  • Kunca, A. et al., 2006: Výskyt škodlivých činiteľov v lesoch Slovenska za rok 2005 a ich prognóza na rok 2006. Zvolen, NLC, 89 p.

  • Lizoň, P., Bacigálová, K., 1998: Huby. Fungi. In: Marhold, K., Hindák, F. (eds.): Checklist of non-vascular and vascular plants of Slovakia. Bratislava, Veda, p. 101–227.

  • Longauerová, V., Maľová, M., Kunca, A., Leontovyč, R., 2013: Poznatky z hynutia jaseňov spôsobovaného hubou Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (ana. Chalara fraxinea). In: Kunca, A. (ed.): Aktuálne problémy v ochrane lesa 2013. Zvolen, NLC, p. 77–81.

  • Longauerová, V., Kunca, A., Longauer, R., Maľová, M., Leontovyč, R., 2017: The ash and ash dieback in Slovakia. In: Vasaitis, R., Enderle, R. (eds.): Dieback of European ash (Fraxinus spp.): consequences and guidelines for sustainable management. Uppsala, SLU Service/Repro, p. 209–219.

  • Paulech, C., 1995: Huby múčnatkotvaré (Erysiphales). Flóra Slovenska X/1. Bratislava, Veda, 294 p.

  • Przybyl, K., 2002: Fungi associated with necrotic apical parts of Fraxinus excelsior shoots. Forest Pathology, 32:387–394.

  • Schröder, T., Dujesiefken, D., 2001: Typische Schadsymptome an Baumarten: Krankheiten und Schäden der Esche. AFZ-DerWald – Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift für Waldwirtschaft und Umweltvorsorge, 56:276–279.

  • Sivanesan, A., 1984: The bitunicate ascomycetes and their anamorphs. Vaduz, J. Cramer, 701 p.

  • Sutton, B. C., 1980: The Coelomycetes - Fungi imperfecti with pycnidia, acervuli and stromata. Kew, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, 696 p.

  • Vasaitis, R., Enderle, R., 2017: Dieback of European ash (Fraxinus spp.): consequences and guidelines for sustainable management. Report on European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action FP1103 FRAXBACK. Uppsala, SLU Service/Repro, 300 p.

  • Zúbrik, M., Kunca, A., Galko, J., Vakula, J., Leontovyč, R., Gubka, A. et al., 2017: Jaseň – najčastejšie choroby a škodcovia jaseňa. Les & Letokruhy, 7–8:32–33.


Journal + Issues