Laboratory experiments with growth potential of Cenangium ferruginosum tested on natural nutrition soils

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Abstract

Začiatkom jari 2012 sa v niektorych oblastiach Slovenska objavilo važne poškodenie borovic. Hnednutie ihlic všetkych ročnikov, nekrozy kory a rakovinove rany na vetvach boli priznakmi tohto poškodenia. Neboli zistene poškodenia podkornym a listožravym hmyzom, koreňove hniloby, sypavky a ani tracheomykozy. Taktiež sme vylučili pyknidovku beľovu Sphaeropsis sapinea ako povodcu tohto hynutia borovic, hoci poškodenie borovic touto hubou bolo v obdobi rokov 2000 až 2007 najvyznamnejšie a v menšom rozsahu pretrvava stale. Laboratornymi rozbormi sme zistili pritomnosť huby Cenangium ferruginosum, ziskali sme čiste kultury a infekčnymi testami sme overili patogenitu ziskaneho izolatu. Potencialnu patogenitu sme testovali ako schopnosť mycelia rasť na prirodzenych živnych podach pripravenych z vyluhu listov, resp. dreva a kory vetvičiek vybranych drevin. Poznatky z terennych šetreni, laboratornych rozborov a terennych hodnoteni možnych predispozičnych faktorov su opisane v tomto članku.

Abstract

Začiatkom jari 2012 sa v niektorych oblastiach Slovenska objavilo važne poškodenie borovic. Hnednutie ihlic všetkych ročnikov, nekrozy kory a rakovinove rany na vetvach boli priznakmi tohto poškodenia. Neboli zistene poškodenia podkornym a listožravym hmyzom, koreňove hniloby, sypavky a ani tracheomykozy. Taktiež sme vylučili pyknidovku beľovu Sphaeropsis sapinea ako povodcu tohto hynutia borovic, hoci poškodenie borovic touto hubou bolo v obdobi rokov 2000 až 2007 najvyznamnejšie a v menšom rozsahu pretrvava stale. Laboratornymi rozbormi sme zistili pritomnosť huby Cenangium ferruginosum, ziskali sme čiste kultury a infekčnymi testami sme overili patogenitu ziskaneho izolatu. Potencialnu patogenitu sme testovali ako schopnosť mycelia rasť na prirodzenych živnych podach pripravenych z vyluhu listov, resp. dreva a kory vetvičiek vybranych drevin. Poznatky z terennych šetreni, laboratornych rozborov a terennych hodnoteni možnych predispozičnych faktorov su opisane v tomto članku.

Abstract

Serious pine dieback was reported in early spring from several localities in Slovakia in 2012. Needle necrosis, bark necrosis and twig cankers were the most conspicuous symptoms on diseased trees. There were no or at least not significant damages caused by bark beetles, leaf eating insects, root rots neither tracheomycosis. We also excluded Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.) Dyko & B. Sutton as the main pest agent, which played an important role in Pinus nigra Arnold dieback from 2000 to 2007 in Slovakia. Our laboratory inspections revealed Cenangium ferruginosum Fr. as the agent responsible for that dieback. We tested its growth capability on different natural nutrition soils in the laboratory to see the potential pathogenecity. This paper describes the pine dieback based on the field inspections and laboratory studies, and we discuss the role of predisposing factors involved in the dieback.

References

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  • ANONYMOUS 2012: Meteorologia a klimatologia. [Meteorology and climatology]. Bulletin 18(2) 45 pp.

  • BUTIN H. 1995: Tree Diseases and Disorders. Oxford University Press New York 252 pp.

  • FARR D.F. BILLS G.F. CHAMURIS G.P. ROSSMAN A.Y. 1989: Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS St. Paul 1252 pp.

  • JURC D. JURC M. SIEBER T.N. BOJOVIC S. 2000: Endophytic Cenangium ferruginosum (Ascomycota) as a reservoir for an epidemic of cenangium dieback in Austrian pine. - Phyton (Horn Austria) 40(4): 103-108.

  • KARADŽIĆ D. MILIJAŠEVIĆ T. 2008: Тhe most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in austrian pine and scots pine plantations in Serbia. Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry 97: 147-170.

  • KUNCA A. 2004: Hynutie porastov borovice čiernej sposobovane hubou Sphaeropsis sapinea. [Pine dieback of Austrian pine caused by Sphaeropsis sapinea]. In: VARINSKY J. (ed): Aktualne problemy v ochrane lesa 2004 Zvolen: Lesnicky vyskumny ustav Zvolen p. 170-173.

  • KUNCA A. FOFFOVA E. 2000: Ohrozenie porastov borovice čiernej fytokarantennym patogenom Dothistroma septospora (Dorog.) Morelet. [Endangered Austrian pine stands by phytoquarantine pathogen Dothistroma septospora (Dorog.) Morelet]. In: VARINSKY J. (ed): Aktualne problemy v ochrane lesa 2000 Zvolen: Lesnicky vyskumny ustav Zvolen p. 136-139.

  • KUNCA A. ZUBRIK M. NOVOTNY J. 2007: Škodlive činitele lesnych drevin a ochrana pred nimi. [Pest agents of forest trees and control methods]. Zvolen: Narodne lesnicke centrum 208 pp.

  • LEONTOVYČ R. 1962: Kalamitne odumieranie borovic na Slovensku v roku 1960 a jeho pričiny. [Pine calamity in Slovakia in 1960 and its reasons]. Lesnicky časopis 6: 429-444.

  • NOVOTNY J. ZUBRIK M. (eds.) 2004: Bioticki škodcovia lesov Slovenska. [Biotic pests of Slovak forests]. Polnochem a. s. 208 p.

  • PEŠKOVA V. SOUKUP F. 2011: Houbove choroby. [Fungal diseases]. - In: Vyskyt lesnich škodlivych činitelů v roce 2010 a jejich očekavany stav v roce 2011. Zpravodaj ochrany lesa. Supplementum (ed. M. Knižek) LOS VULHM v. v. i. p. 40-45.

  • PŘIHODA A. 1959: Lesnicka fytopatologie. [Forestry phytopathology]. Praha: Statni zemědělske nakladatelstvi 367 pp.

  • SINCLAIR W.A. LYON H.H. JOHNSON W.T. 1987: Diseases of Trees and Shrubs. Cornell University Ithaca New York 575 pp.

  • SMITH I.M. DUNEZ J. LELLIOT R.A. PHILLIPS D.H. ARCHER S.A. 1988: European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Blackwell Scientific Publications 583 pp.

  • TEJERINA L. PAJARES J. A. DIEZ J. J. 2007: Effects of Assotiated Fungi Sclerophoma pythiophila and Cenangium ferruginosum on Gremmeniella abietina dieback in Spain. Forest Pathology 37(2): 121-128.

  • ZUBRIK M. KUNCA A. 2011: Hmyz a huby našich lesov: atlas škod na drevinach sposobenych hmyzimi a hubovymi škodlivymi činiteľmi. [Insects and fungi of our forests : atlas of damages on trees caused by insect and fungal pest agents]. Zvolen: Narodne lesnicke centrum 200 pp.

  • ZUBRIK M. KUNCA A. NOVOTNY J. 2008: Hmyz a huby : atlas poškodeni lesnych drevin. [Insects and fungi : atlas of damages of forest trees]. Zvolen: Narodne lesnicke centrum - Lesnicky vyskumny ustav Zvolen 178 pp.

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  • ANONYMOUS 2011: Sprava o lesnom hospodarstve v Slovenskej republike za rok 2010 - Zelena sprava. [Report on the Status of Forestry in the Slovak republic of 2010 - Green Report]. Bratislava: Ministerstvo podohospodarstva a rozvoja vidieka Slovenskej republiky 84 pp.

  • ANONYMOUS 2012: Meteorologia a klimatologia. [Meteorology and climatology]. Bulletin 18(2) 45 pp.

  • BUTIN H. 1995: Tree Diseases and Disorders. Oxford University Press New York 252 pp.

  • FARR D.F. BILLS G.F. CHAMURIS G.P. ROSSMAN A.Y. 1989: Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS St. Paul 1252 pp.

  • JURC D. JURC M. SIEBER T.N. BOJOVIC S. 2000: Endophytic Cenangium ferruginosum (Ascomycota) as a reservoir for an epidemic of cenangium dieback in Austrian pine. - Phyton (Horn Austria) 40(4): 103-108.

  • KARADŽIĆ D. MILIJAŠEVIĆ T. 2008: Тhe most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in austrian pine and scots pine plantations in Serbia. Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry 97: 147-170.

  • KUNCA A. 2004: Hynutie porastov borovice čiernej sposobovane hubou Sphaeropsis sapinea. [Pine dieback of Austrian pine caused by Sphaeropsis sapinea]. In: VARINSKY J. (ed): Aktualne problemy v ochrane lesa 2004 Zvolen: Lesnicky vyskumny ustav Zvolen p. 170-173.

  • KUNCA A. FOFFOVA E. 2000: Ohrozenie porastov borovice čiernej fytokarantennym patogenom Dothistroma septospora (Dorog.) Morelet. [Endangered Austrian pine stands by phytoquarantine pathogen Dothistroma septospora (Dorog.) Morelet]. In: VARINSKY J. (ed): Aktualne problemy v ochrane lesa 2000 Zvolen: Lesnicky vyskumny ustav Zvolen p. 136-139.

  • KUNCA A. ZUBRIK M. NOVOTNY J. 2007: Škodlive činitele lesnych drevin a ochrana pred nimi. [Pest agents of forest trees and control methods]. Zvolen: Narodne lesnicke centrum 208 pp.

  • LEONTOVYČ R. 1962: Kalamitne odumieranie borovic na Slovensku v roku 1960 a jeho pričiny. [Pine calamity in Slovakia in 1960 and its reasons]. Lesnicky časopis 6: 429-444.

  • NOVOTNY J. ZUBRIK M. (eds.) 2004: Bioticki škodcovia lesov Slovenska. [Biotic pests of Slovak forests]. Polnochem a. s. 208 p.

  • PEŠKOVA V. SOUKUP F. 2011: Houbove choroby. [Fungal diseases]. - In: Vyskyt lesnich škodlivych činitelů v roce 2010 a jejich očekavany stav v roce 2011. Zpravodaj ochrany lesa. Supplementum (ed. M. Knižek) LOS VULHM v. v. i. p. 40-45.

  • PŘIHODA A. 1959: Lesnicka fytopatologie. [Forestry phytopathology]. Praha: Statni zemědělske nakladatelstvi 367 pp.

  • SINCLAIR W.A. LYON H.H. JOHNSON W.T. 1987: Diseases of Trees and Shrubs. Cornell University Ithaca New York 575 pp.

  • SMITH I.M. DUNEZ J. LELLIOT R.A. PHILLIPS D.H. ARCHER S.A. 1988: European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Blackwell Scientific Publications 583 pp.

  • TEJERINA L. PAJARES J. A. DIEZ J. J. 2007: Effects of Assotiated Fungi Sclerophoma pythiophila and Cenangium ferruginosum on Gremmeniella abietina dieback in Spain. Forest Pathology 37(2): 121-128.

  • ZUBRIK M. KUNCA A. 2011: Hmyz a huby našich lesov: atlas škod na drevinach sposobenych hmyzimi a hubovymi škodlivymi činiteľmi. [Insects and fungi of our forests : atlas of damages on trees caused by insect and fungal pest agents]. Zvolen: Narodne lesnicke centrum 200 pp.

  • ZUBRIK M. KUNCA A. NOVOTNY J. 2008: Hmyz a huby : atlas poškodeni lesnych drevin. [Insects and fungi : atlas of damages of forest trees]. Zvolen: Narodne lesnicke centrum - Lesnicky vyskumny ustav Zvolen 178 pp.

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