Correlation between salivary α-amylase and stress-related anxiety

Open access

ABSTRACT

Salivary α-amylase is a useful biomarker that can be used in assessing human psychobiological and social behavioural processes. Studying it opens up possibilities for the creation of novel concepts concerning the interaction of biological and social processes and their impact on health and behaviour.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The levels of salivary α-amylase and situation anxiety self-assessment using Spielberger test were measured twice in 30 individuals aged 21.37 ± 0.96 yrs (18 females and 12 males): once during stressful situation (prior to examination) and, again a month later, in stress-free environment (during a training session). Salivary α-amylase was measured using kinetic reaction kit Salimetrics LLC - USA.

RESULTS: The mean level of salivary α-amylase measured during the first measurement 156.0 ± 93.33 U/ml. During the second measurement in the absence of intense stress, the levels were two times lower - 74.03 ± 58.06 U/ml and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). We found a statistically significant correlation between the levels of salivary α-amylase in both measurements (P < 0.01). The correlation coefficient was r = 0.472 (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: The adapted version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score (STAI) created by Spielberger is appropriate for assessment of stress-related anxiety in young individuals. Salivary α-amylase may be used as a biomarker for objective evaluation of the psychosomatic state of individuals in a stressful environment. The combination of psychological test and objective indicator such as salivary α-amylase is an excellent tool for objective evaluation of individual’s state in stressful environment. Similar tests may be used in assessment of patients’ behaviours at dental treatment that may be considered a stressor in most patients.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Malamud DL Niedbala RS eds. Oral-based Diagnostics. Ann N Y Acad Sci Blackwell 2007:517.

  • 2. Lawrence A Tabak LA. Revolution in Biomedical Assessment: The Development of Salivary Diagnostics. J Dent Educ 2001;65(12):1335-9.

  • 3. Thompson LA Trevathan WR. Cortisol reactivity maternal sensitivity and learning in 3-month-old infants. Infant Behav Dev 2008;31(1):92-106.

  • 4. Chrousos GP Gold PW. The concepts of stress and stress system disorders. JAMA 1992;267(9): 1244-52.

  • 5. Lovallo WR Thomas TL. Stress hormones in psychophysiological research: emotional behavioural and cognitive implications. In: Cacioppo JT Tassinary LG Bernston GG eds. Handbook of Psychophysiology. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2000:342-67.

  • 6. Kirschbaum C Pirke KM Hellhammer DH. The ‘Trier Social Stress Test’- a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology 1993;28:76-81.

  • 7. Raynolds C Richmond B. What I think and feel: a revised measure of children’s manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 1978;21(6):271-280.

  • 8. Spielberger C. Anxiety. Current trends in theory and research. New York: Academic Press; 1972.

  • 9. Taylor J Deane FP. Development of a short form of the Test Anxiety Inventory (Tai). J Gen Psychol 2002;129(2):127-36.

  • 10. Kirschbaum C Hellhammer DH. Salivary cortisol in psycho neuroendocrine research: recent developments and applications. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1994;19(4):313-33.

  • 11. Dawes C. Considerations in the development of diagnostic tests on saliva. In: Malamud D Tabak LA eds. Saliva as a diagnostic fl uid. Ann NY Acad Sciences 1993;694:265-9.

  • 12. Gozansky WS Lynn JS Laudenslager ML Kohrt WM. Salivary cortisol determined by enzyme immunoassay is preferable to serum total cortisol for assessment of dynamic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;63(3): 336-41.

  • 13. Poggi ED Granger GA. Developmental differences in infant salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responses to stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009;346:795-804.

  • 14. Stegeren AH Wolf OT Kindt Mvan Stegeren AH Wolf OT Kindt M. Salivary alpha amylase and cortisol responses to different stress tasks: impact of sex. Int J Psychophysiol 2008;69(1):33-40.

  • 15. Nater UM et al. Human salivary alpha-amylase reactivity in a psychosocial stress paradigm. Int J Psychophysiol 2005;55(3):333-42.

  • 16. Nater UM et al. Stress - induced changes in human salivary alpha-amylase activity - associations with adrenergic activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2006;31:49-58.

  • 17. Stroud LR et al. Saliva alpha-amylase stress reactivity in children and adolescents: validity associations with cortisol and link behaviour. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society. Denver CO 2006; March. 29-34.

  • 18. Kivlighan KT DA Granger. Salivary alpha-amylase response to competition: relation to gender previous experiences and attitudes. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2006;31:703-714.

  • 19. Allwood MA Handwerger K Kivlighan KT Granger DA Stroud LR. Direct and moderating links of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol stress-reactivity to youth behavioral and emotional adjustment. Biol Psychol 2011;21(6):45-55.

  • 20. Skosnik PD et al. Modulation of attentional inhibition by norephinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress. Int J Psychophysiol 2000;36:59-68.

  • 21. Granger DA et al. Integrating the measurement of salivary alpha-amylase into studies of child health development and social relationships. J Pers Soc Relationships Special Issue: Physiology and Human Relationships. 2006;23:267-90.

  • 22. Shea AK et al. Maternal depression and salivary alpha-amylase response to stress in their infants. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychosomatic society. Denver CO 2006:34-40.

  • 23. Stoyanov D. A linkage of mind and brain: towards translational validity between neurobiology and psychiatry. Biomed Rev 2011;22:65-76.

  • 24. Stoyanov DS. Translational cross-validation among neuroscience and psychiatry: Prospects for diagnostic assessment and psychopharmacology. European Psychiatry 2012;27:1.

  • 25. Mize J Lisonbee J Granger D. Stress in child care: cortisol and alpha-amylase may refl ect different components of the stress response. Presented at the Biennial Meeting of Society for Research in Child Development. Atlanta GA 2005. March. 25-34.

  • 26. Shtetinski D Paspalanov I. Manual for the Bulgarian version of questionnaire for anxiety assessment by Ch. Spielberger (STAI ) Institute of Psychology Comprehensive study of human being and their brain. 1989:1-60.

  • 27. Salimetrics/Products and Services [Internet] Available from: http://www.salimetrics.com/.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.587

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.311

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 528 335 23
PDF Downloads 217 147 8